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Ruins of Jacksonville: The Streetcar System

"When we predict that Jacksonville will become the metropolis of the South, it is made upon the favorable surrounding conditions, based upon the history of the past with the corroborating facts of the present." -1905 Jacksonville City Directory, Publisher's Remarks

Published July 7, 2009 in Transit      45 Comments    Open printer friendly version of this article Print Article




Bay Street during the 1870's (above).  By 1898, Jacksonville had 12 miles of streetcar lines in operation.  In 1900, Jacksonville had three parks: Hemming Plaza, Riverside Park, and Springfield Park.



Springfield's Main Street in 1900.



Expanding the system.  Laying track in 1901.



Bay Street in 1904.



Bay Street in 1908.




By 1910, the Main Street (originally Pine Street) line had been double tracked. The streetcar network had grown to 40 miles of track and the system had a universal transfer system in place.


More construction in 1910.


The South's Largest Cities 1910 (excluding Texas, DC and Maryland)

339,075 New Orleans (196.0 square miles)
223,928 Louisville (20.7)
154,839 Atlanta (25.7)
132,685 Birmingham (48.3)
131,105 Memphis (18.4)
127,628 Richmond (10.0)
110,364 Nashville (17.1)
 67,452 Norfolk (5.6)
 65,064 Savannah (6.3)
 58,833 Charleston (3.8)
 57,699 Jacksonville (9.3)

http://www.census.gov/population/www/documentation/twps0027/tab14.txt



Main Street in 1913.  

By 1913, Jacksonville had 42.2 miles of streetcar lines.  13,828,904 passengers rode the system in 1912.



Forsyth Street in 1914.



Looking north down Hogan Street, near Hemming Park, in 1915.  The Hogan Street line went north to State Street, where riders could access the growing streetcar suburbs of Durkeeville, Sugar Hill and Moncrief Park.



A streetcar on Riverside Avenue in 1915.  The Riverside line took passengers from downtown to Riverside, Avondale and Ortega before terminating at NAS Jax.


The South's Largest Cities 1920 (excluding Texas, DC and Maryland)

387,219 New Orleans (178.0 square miles)
234,891 Louisville (22.4)
200,616 Atlanta (26.2)
178,806 Birmingham (49.0)
171,667 Richmond (24.0)
162,351 Memphis (23.4)
118,342 Nashville (18.0)
115,777 Norfolk (7.5)
 91,558 Jacksonville (15.4)
 83,252 Savannah (7.0)
 77,818 Knoxville (26.7)

http://www.census.gov/population/www/documentation/twps0027/tab15.txt



A line of people leaving the Jacksonville Teminal waiting to catch a Bay Street streetcar into downtown in 1921.



Another photo of Bay Street, near the Jacksonville Terminal, in 1921.




Above and Below: Two different views of the intersection of Bay and Broad Streets.




Median running down a two-way Forsyth Street.



The Jacksonville Traction Company's trolley barn on Riverside Avenue (demolished for the construction of the current Acosta Bridge ramps).  

In 1925, leading industries in Jacksonville include ship building, lumber and cigar manufacturing.  The port, which is the deepest on the South Atlantic Coast, specializes in lumber, cotton, phosphate, cigars, sugar, fruits and vegatables.




Connectivity: The Jacksonville Terminal in 1926.  Travelers coming into or leaving Jacksonville could use the streetcar system to access the train station.



A view near the intersection of Forsyth & Main.

In 1930, Jacksonville is known as the "Gateway City of the South."  129,540 people call Jacksonville home and 97.8% are native born.  The city has 23 parks that total up to 350 acres. 12,000 people pass through the Jacksonville railroad terminal daily.  In addition, the streetcar system has grown to a network of 59 miles of track.

The South's Largest Cities 1930 (excluding Texas, DC and Maryland)

458,762 New Orleans (196.0 square miles)
307,745 Louisville (36.0)
270,366 Atlanta (34.8)
259,678 Birmingham (50.3)
253,143 Memphis (45.7)
182,929 Richmond (24.0)
153,866 Nashville (26.0)
129,710 Norfolk (28.0)
129,549 Jacksonville (26.4)
119,798 Chattanooga (16.2)
110,637 Miami (43.0)

http://www.census.gov/population/www/documentation/twps0027/tab16.txt



A group of businessmen pose for a photograph inside a streetcar.


"It is one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Southeast, piquant and serious, up-to-date as New York, with a background of ancient America.
Jacksonville City Directory, 1932-33 page 13.



A streetcar on Forsyth.




They say all good things must come to an end.  Replaced by buses, Florida's largest streetcar system would cease operation in 1936 taking a portion of the urban core's heart with it.




1936 was the first year that the grand streetcar system is no longer mentioned in the annual city directory.  Over the years, the streetcar would fade into memory.






Remnants of the Jacksonville Traction Company's era

Although the streetcar is long gone, remnants of this impressive mass transit system can be found all over the urban core.



The rain waters of last year's Tropical Storm Fay reveal a little history under Oak Street.





The Myrtle Avenue Subway.  Streetcars once traveled down the middle of this street to access the streetcar suburbs of Brooklyn, North Riverside and Lackawanna.




Abandoned commercial buildings along the former Myrtle Street line.





The former location of streetcar tracks can be seen in the middle of Avondale's Aberdeen Street.




The streetcar once crossed the Ortega River Bridge to reach Ortega and NAS Jax.




Former streetcar right-of-way next to Roosevelt Blvd.  This line terminated at Murray Hill's First Block (Edgewood Avenue).




The Park and King commercial street was served by streetcars at both ends.  One line down Oak Street and another along Post Street.


Oak Street:  Although the streetcar line has left us, Riverside's Oak Street remains lined with a number of transit oriented buildings that were constructed in the early 20th century because of its presence.











Although streetcar lines never ran through the heart of Five Points, the Oak Street line was only a block away.  The dense collection of commercial buildings on Lomax suggests this strip was Five Point's main connection to the streetcar system.



Asa Philip Randolph (Florida Avenue), was once the location of the Eastside's streetcar line.




Remnants of former track on 7th Street near Tallyrand Avenue.





This image illustrates the extent of Jacksonville's city limits in the 1930's and the location of the city's streetcar lines in green.


A drive down the streets of the urban core reveals that most of the city's historic walkable commercial districts have a direct connection with the now defunct streetcar system.  This should help validate the nationwide push to invest in streetcar networks to serve as a catalyst for infill economic development.

In a quest to decide what Jacksonville wants to be, it may be time for this city to roll back the clock and restore what was once one of the South's most impressive mass transit systems.

Article by Ennis Davis

Historic images from the Florida Photographic Archives






45 Comments

archiphreak

July 07, 2009, 08:24:56 AM
In researching the history of our street car system did you come across a reason for the switch to a bus system?  It seems to me that, with such a robust ridership during the time of the street car system, the city officials would have wanted to continue to expand, modernize and ultimately profit from such a widely used transportation system. 
I'm in awe.  Jacksonville 70 years ago is exactly the kind of city I want to live in today.  It's a shame it all went to waste in such a short time.

Dog Walker

July 07, 2009, 08:32:23 AM
The story that I have heard is that Jacksonville was part of a pattern of streetcar line closures that was engineered by General Motors and Firestone.  The tale is that they would form companies that would buy the private streetcar lines, then close the lines and replace them with buses (made by GM, running on tires made by Firestone) with great publicity about the modernity and flexibility.

Don't know if this was true for Jacksonville, but am sure that it was for other cities.

Ock, can you give us the "true" history?

Doctor_K

July 07, 2009, 08:40:35 AM
The transition to buses and away from rail-based transit was a nationwide phenomenon that took place at around the same time as our abandonment of streetcars.  I can't recall specifics, but it was definitely not an isolated event. 

Something about transitioning to the ultra-modern conveniences of a bus, that wasn't limited to tracks, etc.
Definitely was a widespread push/transition.

**EDIT**  Right on, Dog Walker.


Great photo/history tour.  Thanks MetroJacksonville!

Jason

July 07, 2009, 08:43:34 AM
Absolutely fantastic article!!   Seriously, one of the most interesting aspects of Jacksonville history also one of the least talked about.

Great work!

thelakelander

July 07, 2009, 09:02:41 AM
In researching the history of our street car system did you come across a reason for the switch to a bus system?  It seems to me that, with such a robust ridership during the time of the street car system, the city officials would have wanted to continue to expand, modernize and ultimately profit from such a widely used transportation system. 
I'm in awe.  Jacksonville 70 years ago is exactly the kind of city I want to live in today.  It's a shame it all went to waste in such a short time.

GM bought out the system and replaced it with buses, manufactured by them.  I'm sure Ock has an old Jax article about this situation in his possession somewhere.  Here is a paragraph explaining how things went down in Alabama around the same time.

Quote
If you're interested in public transportation — and you should be, whether you're concerned about economic development, pollution and fossil-fuel dependency or just hate sitting in traffic — it's important to know the hidden history of public transportation in Alabama.

The City of Montgomery established the nation's first citywide electric trolley system in 1886, and by 1908 the city of 40,000 boasted 80 streetcars covering 42 miles of rail. It may come as a shock to someone driving during Birmingham's rush hours that 93 million riders used Birmingham's public transit system in 1948. How did Alabama cities abandon their progressive embrace of public transit and the common good?

The automobile and the electric streetcar began to flourish at roughly the same time. However, it was the private automobile, not the public streetcar, that got hefty doses of taxpayer money — a strangely familiar notion in the era of federal bailouts for Detroit automakers.

And Alabama played a part in the story.

In 1920, National City Lines Inc. opened for business with two second-hand buses in Minnesota. By the end of World War II, the company controlled public transit in more than 80 cities. Its inner circle of investors resembles a Who's Who of highway transportation — General Motors, Greyhound, Standard Oil, Firestone and numerous GM parts suppliers.

As this trend swept the nation, Alabama Power, which owned the electrified Montgomery trolleys as a utility, decided it no longer wanted an ownership stake. Within the calendar year of 1936, the system was transferred to National City Lines and converted to bus service. Tracks were pulled up in Montgomery and around the state.

In 1949, a federal grand jury indicted General Motors for criminal conspiracy for destroying the efficient public trolleys in Los Angeles. By 1950, GM had converted more than 100 electric streetcar systems to gasoline-powered buses. The triumph of internal combustion was complete.

http://www.annistonstar.com/pages/full_story_golf/push?article-Alabama-s+on+an+outdated+path-+State-s+stimulus+transit+funding+is+headed+in+wrong+direction%20&id=2677022-Alabama-s+on+an+outdated+path-+State-s+stimulus+transit+funding+is+headed+in+wrong+direction&instance=1st_left

TPC

July 07, 2009, 09:09:20 AM
Great article, as I was reading I was curious about the switch from streetcars to busses as well. I've heard that GM and Firestone pushed for busses as well and it seems quite believable.

GideonGlib

July 07, 2009, 09:10:33 AM
Wow, how amazing would it be if even half of that system was still in place.

fsujax

July 07, 2009, 09:20:36 AM
Great pictures. I hope that someday soon we can at least have some sort of starter line.

Lunican

July 07, 2009, 09:48:27 AM
Here is another good article about the Los Angeles, San Jose, and San Diego systems.

Quote

The Alameda in San Jose crossing underneath SP in 1937. The trolley wire supports on the bridge can be seen to this day.

Streetcars provided pollution free, comfortable transportation without receiving any government subsidy. Unfortunately for transit patrons, and all who desire clean air, the competition between transportation competitors was not a fair one.

The destruction of transit in the East Bay and across the Bay Bridge was, unfortunately, typical for California's other large metropolitan areas. The only large city in California where GM did not destroy the transit system was San Francisco. This was because it was not able to do a takeover: San Francisco's transit system was owned by the City. Of course, GM was savvy enough to not directly buy these transit systems. They used "front" companies, funneling the money through them, and when they achieved control, it was the end for the transit system. All without the public's knowledge.

California transit systems destroyed by GM included those in the East Bay, San Jose, Fresno, Stockton, Sacramento, San Diego and the biggest, Los Angeles. There were probably more, but I can prove these from records.

San Jose

What about the San Jose streetcar system? GM has admitted to making an "investment ... in Pacific City Lines beginning in 1938 ..." [in GM's report "The Truth About American Ground Transport," page 21]. San Jose Railroads became a subsidiary of Pacific City Lines [Moody's Manuals]. The streetcar service was discontinued on April 10, 1938.

Hostile takeover attempt of the Key System in 1941

Harre Demoro of the San Francisco Chronicle writes [in his book The Key Route] : "Pacific City Lines was headquartered in Oakland and specialized in acquiring smaller transit systems and converting them from rail to bus. The Key System was among its largest targets at the time [January, 1941], and [Key System president] Lundberg moved quickly to avert a takeover." This 1941 takeover attempt was only made publicly known at a PUC hearing in 1955, because the request by the Key System (GM-controlled) attorney to delete it from the public record was denied. The Key System was not so lucky in 1946.
The Key System takeover in 1946

General Motors has admitted to making "investments" in National City Lines in 1939 and other years (which they didn't all list). This "front" company, National City Lines, acquired 64% of the stock of the Key System (officially the Railway Equipment and Realty Company) in 1946. The destruction of this transit system is detailed in previous pages.

Los Angeles metropolitan area

The Los Angeles system consisted of two companies, Los Angeles Railway, with 1042 yellow streetcars, and Pacific Electric, with 437 red electric cars. At least one line was quad tracked for express train service. Pacific Electric had a subway thru downtown Los Angeles. [Figures from PUC Special Study TR-23, 1944].

General Motors has admitted that "GM made ... investments in American City Lines in 1943." Soon, American City Lines was buying stock in Los Angeles Railway. By May 1, 1945, they owned 59% of the outstanding stock. The same month, the Los Angeles Railway announced plans to scrap most of the streetcar lines [Source: Moody's]. Pacific Electric was acquired in 1953. By then, a number of lines had already been acquired and destroyed via Pacific City Lines [Source: Hearings before the Senate Subcommittee on Antitrust and Monopoly: American Ground Transport, 1974]. The Hollywood Blvd. line was destroyed in 1954 and the Glendale-Burbank line in 1955, both using the subway under downtown LA.

Kerosene was poured on the streetcars and electric trains and they were burned, except a few placed in museums. Nothing was left of the transit system which had comprised 1479 streetcars and train cars. There were also trolley buses by LA Railway.

San Diego

On March 12, 1949, General Motors was convicted for monopoly and violating antitrust laws by a federal court. It was fined merely $5000. The fine was not enough to dissuade GM, because the destructions continued using more elaborate "fronts." For example, the selling of the San Diego streetcar system in 1948 (when GM was under indictment), with 104 streetcars, was "to J. L. Haugh, Oakland, for an undisclosed amount" [Moody's Public Utilities Manuals]. Who is this person? The Key System president installed by GM! Previous to that, he was an executive at Pacific City Lines. San Diego's streetcars, which were the new PCC type - still being used to this day in San Francisco - were scrapped in 1949.

That's not all for J. L. Haugh. In 1953, Jesse L. Haugh "acquired" the Pacific Electric. The real financiers of the takeover were again hidden from the public at the time, but became known later by congressional investigation.
Investors plundered, taxpayers burdened

The last year that dividends were paid on Key System stock was in 1947. This meant that the owners of the Key System stock who were not automobile interests, and who owned 36% of the stock, were, in effect, plundered. Stockholders of the Los Angeles Railway, 41% of which was not owned by automobile interests, were also plundered.

It also meant that what was once a private company, making profit and paying taxes, eventually became both government owned and government subsidized, after GM destroyed both its efficiency and its customer base. This process was repeated in other of GM's transit operations in California. The transit companies also had owned much of the property under their tracks, and paid property taxes which roads never paid.

Taxpayers to this day are burdened with subsidizing bus systems. To a much greater extent, they are burdened with subsidizing automobiles whose numbers are far greater than if the electric systems - with streetcars, trains and trolly buses - had remained intact.

http://www.trainweb.org/mts/ctc/ctc06.html

JoeMerchant

July 07, 2009, 10:01:12 AM
Jacksonville 70 years ago is exactly the kind of city I want to live in today.  It's a shame it all went to waste in such a short time.

It certainly was a more bustling and exciting time for downtown in any image that I've seen of that era.  It's an uneasy feeling that the City seems to dislike anything from that era, from the buildings, to the streetcars....  

b real

July 07, 2009, 10:02:50 AM
This article is very inspiring. To have the evidence that our city was once a lively place to be is amazing. I hope to think that within time we will have our city back. Having a site like Metro Jax is what gets those that don't have the vision to start looking outside the box for answers. Awesome post. And I also want to live in a city like Jacksonville once was.....I don't want to move to find it!

Ocklawaha

July 07, 2009, 10:17:16 AM
Nice job Lake. I've tossed in a quote from the APTA that paints the benefits and function of a streetcar operation.

Quote
American Public Transportation Association

In a town or downtown setting, streetcars do many things. Obviously, they provide mobility, without the automobile and in a way that is friendly to pedestrians. In addition, they bring development and channel it where it is wanted. They attract tourists. They let people who use transit to get to town move around in the downtown (in transit language, the "distributor" function), or, in Traditional Neighborhood Design residential areas, they pick people up from near their homes and take them to the commuter rail or Light Rail line (the "collector" function) to go into the city. They bring new people to transit; as San Francisco Municipal Railway General Manager Michaelt. Burns said, "People who wouldn't ride a bus will ride a streetcar." 1 And, perhaps most important, streetcars say, "This town, this downtown, is here to stay. It's not going to go down hill again." George Sanborn, reference librarian of the Massachusetts State Transportation Library, put it well. "Every city's streetcars were different. When the streetcars went away, so did the flavor of that city." 2 Bringing back the streetcars puts back the flavor our cities and towns have lost, and tells the world that it is not going to go away again.

In their heyday, (streetcars) were machines that generated affection, combining power and modesty. They were real trains but without the noise and smoke; they went over high bridges and quietly down tree-lined streets, across wide distances, into bustling downtowns -- yet for all their modern power and range, you could catch them on your own street corner. The future of the trolley may depend on certain memories, of that swaying and quiet clicking, the arrival heralded by a familiar bell.

The demise of our streetcars were indeed connected to "The Great Streetcar Holocaust," which was engineered by 4 major players. General Motors, Standard Oil, Phillips Petroleum and Firestone all conspired to kill the traction companies nationwide. Our system was one of the early victims of this plot which started with Motor Transit Company, which was owned by National City Lines, which was owned by the conspirators.

Many streetcar and interurban (LRT) lines were owned by utility companies, and the highway lobby donated huge sums to make sure the big dog utilities got divided from the transportation firms. Just before Jacksonville Traction Company vanished forever, The Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935, an antitrust law was passed to sweep away any financial backing the streetcar companies still had. It was all downhill after the passage of that act.
 

stjr

July 07, 2009, 11:26:39 AM
Great article and pictures.  Jax, with from about 1/20th to 1/10th its current metro population, looked like a much more cosmopolitan and vibrant city than anything around today.

I think this article also shows the importance of a downtown in establishing the identify and cultural footprint of a metro area.
  The downtown of old was what really put Jax on the map in the minds of the world at large.  And it had many distinctive and unique buildings, that when you saw them, you knew they said "Jacksonville".  Our destruction of these buildings and overall failure to create new ones on par with them has left the City stripped of much of what made this uniquely "Jacksonville" and nowhere else.  Certainly, a sanitized and nondescript suburbia built by tract builders makes no distinct or lasting impression, creates no identity, and could be a suburb of most any city in America.

The removal of streetcars shows what happens when a community takes a short sighted view and sells itself out to the money interests and developers for the quick "economic growth" so many of our citizens are always looking for at the expense of our quality of life.   Let's sell out our beaches for offshore drilling, our rural and forrested lands for outer beltways, our parks for lower taxes, mass transit and pedestrian friendly avenues for wider, faster roads, historic structures for more parking or "new" office boxes, our cultural and educational institutions for a few pennies in tax savings, etc.  Our society, stripped of all these quality of life building blocks is left with what?  A forgettable, flavorless, mass produced, devoid of character, boring, day to day grinding existence?

stephendare

July 07, 2009, 11:35:59 AM
<a href="http://www.youtube.com/v/_hMagNuhLkk" target="_blank" class="new_win">http://www.youtube.com/v/_hMagNuhLkk</a>

Southbanker

July 07, 2009, 11:53:17 AM
Amazing...what a cool city we used to be!

Bike Jax

July 07, 2009, 12:16:14 PM
I posted "Taken For A Ride" an amazing documentary by Jim Kleina and Martha Olson that documents the efforts to derail mass transit in America on Bike Jax a couple of month ago.

Yuu can check it out at http://www.bikejax.org/2009/03/taken-for-ride-murder-of-mass-transit.html

archiphreak

July 07, 2009, 01:45:45 PM
Stephen Dare gets mad props for posting one of the greatest bands ever.  Siouxsie and the Banshees - YEAH BABIE!

hightowerlover

July 07, 2009, 01:47:48 PM
kinda ironic that gm is getting bailed out plus we're having to spend money to put back mass transit options such as streetcars.  thanks for screwing us over GM.  cheers to you GM and your monopolies failure!

Jason

July 07, 2009, 01:59:32 PM
I bet the guy getting off of the trolly is thinking "Now wich car is mine?!"

 ;D





zoo

July 07, 2009, 02:33:34 PM
Quote
The removal of streetcars shows what happens when a community takes a short sighted view and sells itself out to the money interests and developers for the quick "economic growth" so many of our citizens are always looking for at the expense of our quality of life. Let's sell out our beaches for offshore drilling, our rural and forrested lands for outer beltways, our parks for lower taxes, mass transit and pedestrian friendly avenues for wider, faster roads, historic structures for more parking or "new" office boxes, our cultural and educational institutions for a few pennies in tax savings, etc. Our society, stripped of all these quality of life building blocks is left with what?  A forgettable, flavorless, mass produced, devoid of character, boring, day to day grinding existence?

Excellent summary stjr -- we're already there, are you running for mayor?

cracklow

July 07, 2009, 03:48:48 PM
Yes, please do. Someone with vision (naturally I prefer the transit leaning vision of the group that tends to hang out here) needs to run for Mayor.  I will do whatever I can to help get someone with this quality elected, my family has been here all of the 20th century and remembers what it was like before the streetcars were dismantled.  It is ridiculous that Jacksonville devolved so quickly into the suburban hell most everyone else who is either a recent transplant or whom haven't lived here thinks that it has always been.

Dog Walker

July 07, 2009, 04:40:30 PM
Part of the reason we had sprawl and suburbs before anyone else is that Jax had the FIRST expressway system in the South; even before Atlanta.  Because of the river, all roads led to the bridges which created bottlenecks.  I can remember taking almost an hour to go from San Marco to Imeson Airport via San Marco Blvd, the Main Street Bridge and Main street.  The Jacksonville Expressway Authority was formed to build the Mathews and Fuller Warren Bridges and to open the suburbs, especially Arlington up for development.

The expressways were routed to take out "blighted" (read black) areas and separate black and white neighborhoods where possible.  Ferris Bryant, later governor, Hugh Dowling, a local attorney and William Cesary, Sr. were some of the movers behind our early adoption of an expressway.

chris

July 07, 2009, 05:25:35 PM
A lot of this problem speaks to Jacksonville's lack of identity. With the loss of the central and stationary transit, suburbia was left to swallow itself up, each new neighborhood developing on the skirt of the last one until now we have at least 40 "areas" of town that represent different ages, ethnicities, and aesthetics. Not only do we need leaders of vision, we need them to be focused and resolute, to have the courage to do what is necessary, not just what will win votes or a second term. We need leaders who can live up to our collective past, varied in quality as it may be, and then move on with singular purpose. This person cannot simply be transit oriented, as zoo may like, but needs to be aware of how our fair city's transit issues created and effected many of the problems we face today.

9a is my backyard

July 07, 2009, 06:12:54 PM
Jacksonville 70 years ago is exactly the kind of city I want to live in today.

Exactly!  Well, minus all the blatant racism. 

Look at all the abandoned development around where the streetcars used to go... At least if we scrap our bus system there won't be any signs of it.  We can just pretend it never happened :)

mtraininjax

July 07, 2009, 09:57:29 PM
Quote
Exactly!  Well, minus all the blatant racism.

You think so? Ever been deep in the Westside? Its there....sadly. This still is the south passed on from many generations. I do not enjoy it, but I am not naive to believe it does not exist either.

Ever seen a black member at Timuquana Country Club?

Ocklawaha

July 07, 2009, 11:49:19 PM

Jacksonville's streetcars were off the street on many of the routes including this Kings Avenue scene, streetcars are simply light railroads and can operate ANYWHERE we build the tracks. New "Transportation Thought," is circulating that streetcars do even better when they have their own right-of-way, looks like we were years ahead of our time only to trash it all.

The photo of the Gentlemen riding the streetcar is loaded... This isn't any particular "gentleman", but front and center is Judge Burton Barrs. The streetcar line is bankrupt and the case bounced around for about 5 years while the city of Jacksonville and the traction company engaged in a pissing contest. As the company went down the tubes, Barr's name pops up over and over and not always a judge. Commissioner? Councilman? etc. The photo is on-board the last run from the Courthouse down Bay Street to the car barn in Brooklyn. The darkness visible in the photo is due to the fact that the heavens were crying that cold rainy December day in 1936. The question remains, What did Barr's do? How was he in this? Who judged the bankruptcy? Why the order to dismantle? What kind of car did he drive in 1937?

In defense of the short sighted city leadership, let's say it was an "Everybody's doing it story..." Because the streetcars last forever (San Francisco and Kennebunkport Maine both have cars over 100 years old, New Orleans some that are 80 years old) they had collected signs of worn, used and neglected relics. What we would see as a major demand historical vintage machine, was seen as an old worn out trolley. Add to this the FACT that the city like every other city in America, would not allow the traction companies to raise their fares without a long and extensive legal fight. Jacksonville Traction finally got the 5 cent to 8 cent raise, when they agreed to provide closer headways. All major routes would now see more cars on duty as schedules closed from every 10 minutes to every 8, then to every 5.

Finally it was a tired company that fought off a franchise threat from a bus company from Georgia. The city was wowed by the sweets the bus line offered and then suddenly withdrew. The noise the bus operators made was so complete as to send city officials "looking" for these improvements when Motor Transit just happened on the scene representing National City Lines. Could it be the Georgia promises were so overwhelming that it set a trap for the city? Would research show a connection between the Georgia firm and National City Lines, or Motor Transit? Even if it were all a coincidence, the plant of the traction company was rotting away during several years of a franchise fight. We must also consider the brains capacity to understand the results of an 850 square mile sprawled city in a dense trolley era. FLEXIBLIITY, was the catch phrase used by every bus salesman both then and even now. Endless opportunity to run the vehicle where ever the passenger wants to go, seemed like an easily obtainable goal in theory, but in fact it was impossible. No one even gave a thought to the investment of really major money on office towers or factories based on a new flex based transit system. No one noticed that transit and development would become two unrelated worlds as a result.

"Railroad virgins," which describes most residents of the City under the age of 45, should note that track requires some maintenance. Certainly early streetcar style track which was often laid directly on the sandy soil, with wooden ties, light rail and jointed track. The weight of 75,000 pound streetcars running along this type of track would pump water to the surface causing the joints to loosen and sag. Vehicle crossings, switches and other unique areas would often get knocked out of alignment. So as the city considered it's options, while getting a "free ride" on a mint condition demo motor coach, they looked down their noses at a bumpy, swaying, tired, old trolley system.


Today's streetcars enjoy modern track that is nearly maintenance free providing heavy freight cars or CSX style locomotives are kept off. Our future streetcar line would be laid on a bed of concrete with steel ties, larger rail without any joints. In area's where the streetcar leaves the road the track would look just like the Florida East Coast mainline at Atlantic Boulevard in San Marco. The ride quality even in vintage 100 year old cars would be smooth enough to be almost imperceptible. We need the streetcars back, we need the improvements they bring and transit they provide. Mixed with BRT, Commuter Rail, Light Rail, River Taxi, Amtrak and Skyway, all revitalized would be an urban heaven.

So as we ran off the streetcars and trains what have we gained or lost? Here's a few fun facts and figures:

6,000,000 passengers a year come through Jacksonville International Airport on roughly 249 flights and 9 airlines.
12,000,000 passengers a year came through Union Station downtown between 1919 and 1974 on up to 250 daily trains and 4 railroads (When the Atlantic Coast Line and Seaboard merged they reduced this number to 3 railroads)
JTA 50 years old has just reached the 10,000,000 passengers a year mark on 60 plus routes
The unfinished Skyway (crippled by lack of will by the COJ) carries about 1/3 million passengers yearly
The streetcar system, Jacksonville Traction Company carried about 14,000,000 yearly, 1910-36
Most JTA buses run on 45 minute headways while others are hourly and a few every 30 minutes
Jacksonville Traction Company streetcars provided a general 8 minute headway with a few at 10 minutes and others at 5 minutes.
Today, Jacksonville has one of the smaller airports in the USA and in Florida
Jacksonville Terminal was the largest railroad terminal south of Washington DC
JTA is the third largest bus fleet operator well behind Miami-Dade, and Fort Lauderdale (both of which have advanced streetcar plans)
Jacksonville Traction was the largest streetcar system in the State of Florida

So you tell me...

Did we win or lose, or are we waiting for Saint Elmo's Fire?





thelakelander

July 08, 2009, 12:08:29 AM
We got the short end of the stick.  Do we have time for a 4th quarter rally?

DONTBELIEVETHEHYPE

July 08, 2009, 12:46:06 AM
Quote
Exactly!  Well, minus all the blatant racism.

You think so? Ever been deep in the Westside? Its there....sadly. This still is the south passed on from many generations. I do not enjoy it, but I am not naive to believe it does not exist either.

Ever seen a black member at Timuquana Country Club?

The answer to your last question is yes.  What point were you trying to make with this question?

mtraininjax

July 08, 2009, 06:32:42 AM
Quote
Today, Jacksonville has one of the smaller airports in the USA and in Florida
Jacksonville Terminal was the largest railroad terminal south of Washington DC

OC - Jax fell behind the rest of Florida because, IMO, the leadership here in our great city fell behind those in other more progressive cities. As those cities grew, Miami, Tampa, Orlando, they went and planned for ways to move people around the cities, where our leaders just sat by and did nothing to help manage population growth. If we did anything, we built bridges to Arlington and the Southside to further advance growth outside of downtown. Extreme hubris by our leaders of the 40s and 50s lead to where we are today with our current system.

Now the leadership in office now is non-existent and we will need better to plan for the future. Our city is in the denial stage, I see the need for better mass transit myself, but we need someone to get creative in our city to make the transit system funded and not to wait for the recovery of jobs and employees. When it hits and we have 5-6 dollar a gallon gas and 200 dollar a barrel oil is NOT the time to be planning a change in transit policy.


The rail change happened as a result of people wanting to go further South. Thank Henry Flagler for that one, had he build a few more luxury hotels here in Jax and done more to grow the Jax businesses, perhaps we could have been more of a destination town, other than a pit-stop on the way to the evil mouse, shamu orsome cocanut infused tropical infused coctail from South Beach.

reednavy

July 08, 2009, 08:49:51 AM
Just FYI: OKC unveils plans for streetcar system.

http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=869948

JoeMerchant

July 08, 2009, 09:11:39 AM
^ Looking at that website and presentation for the Oklahoma City Modern Transit Project, and then glancing back over to the presentation for the Artist Walk at Ram prepared by City of Jacksonville, I felt like I got punched in the gut.  The difference in the qualities of the presentation is ridiculous, Jax looks like it's a PowerPoint presentation from the mid 90's, while OC's looks fresh, and gets people excited with a quick glance....

And then there's the MTP itself not only are they using a modern transportation system, their harnessing wind power to help generate the electricity.

We really should just photoshop Jacksonville's skyline and Peyton's head on their mayor's and see what kind of response there would be to that front page presentation.....

JaxNative68

July 08, 2009, 11:33:29 AM
racism killed our city.

btw, how much does the "Springfield's Main Street in 1900" photo look like New Orleans?  Could have been us!

Ocklawaha

July 08, 2009, 01:53:30 PM


The City jumped on the bus with liberated joy, smoother, faster, more comfortable, and completely FLEXIBLE... Oh, did I mention National City Lines claim to buses being faster? Well, here is your evidence, blowing past an early aircraft at 97 miles per hour. Flexibility came back to bite us in the butt. Smoother? Perhaps the result of a war with City Hall, bankruptcy and allowing the track to sink in the sand.

racism killed our city.

btw, how much does the "Springfield's Main Street in 1900" photo look like New Orleans?  Could have been us!

The race card is not a valid excuse for our demise as the metropolis of the South, if it were, then Atlanta, Memphis, Selma, Birmingham and Charlotte would be in far worse shape then us. Having lived through axe handle Sunday, and seen my father active in Civil Rights gave me a unique view of the races in Jacksonville. At some risk to his own executive suite, dad, who managed the NEX Southeast Region, trained the "Shoe Shine Boys" as hair stylist, clerks and cashiers. It was a shot heard around the local Navy facilities. These men became part of my extended family, "uncles" to a small boy. Two of them, a Mr. James Johnson, and a Mr. Johnny Santo, took it on theirselves to teach this little WASP the fine arts of fishing, soul food and some truly great music.  As a result of those bonds, as a single young man, I lived just blocks from Edward Waters College, and in Grand Crossing. My experience in "The Hood" were some of the friendliest, neighborly, and productive times of my life. Meanwhile dad was weathering a fire storm of Department of Defense rules, he prevailed however and the multi-colored curtin came crashing down. I couldn't be more proud of him.

You are correct that several of our Main Street buildings looked like New Orleans, there are still a few remaining on Main as well as downtown. Perhaps we could do a photo essay on the "New Orleans Factor," in our buildings history.

MTrain, I never thought of you and I agreeing on anything (except friendship) and I find your post in this thread 100% right on target. I couldn't agree with you more. As for the hotels, had we been a bit more pro-active and followed the lead of City Commissioner, Saint Elmo Acosta, we would have Light Rail to the beach today (as he proposed). It was Acosta that told the City we needed to cash in on that Florida East Coast branchline to Jacksonville Beach and Mayport, which at the time was up for abandonment. Not only LRT, but Interurban style freight service would have made our City cluster around 20 miles of track. Mayport would have grown from a railroad/maritime coal terminal into one of the greatest ports in the world. It is also likely that the Florida East Coast would have obtained access to the Northside Ports, thus rather then a rail transportation and logistics port city we would also have become a destination. Flagler, did have a fantastic "Hotel Continental," at Atlantic Beach, but not unlike the "Hotel Ormond," it was all wood. Ormond tore theirs down in the 1980's, and ours burned to the ground in the early 1900's.

Today we sit at a junction in the path to the future, either we embrace fixed rail transit and reap the rewards, or we continue to delude ourselves that spending a Billion dollars on glorified bus freeways will save the day.

Thanks for the information on OKC, I was there when this was just talk... I wonder how it became a project? Hee Hee. BTW, did you know that when Oklahoma City closed it's streetcar and interurban lines for "modern flexible bus transit," ridership dropped by 97%. To quote a JTA official when speaking about light rail in Charlotte: "Those  people hate rail, nobody wants it, they want Bus Rapid Transit..." Then the vote came in North Carolina, with streetcars and LRT taking almost 80% of the votes. So much for hating rail..

JaxNative68

July 08, 2009, 03:50:49 PM


The City jumped on the bus with liberated joy, smoother, faster, more comfortable, and completely FLEXIBLE... Oh, did I mention National City Lines claim to buses being faster? Well, here is your evidence, blowing past an early aircraft at 97 miles per hour. Flexibility came back to bite us in the butt. Smoother? Perhaps the result of a war with City Hall, bankruptcy and allowing the track to sink in the sand.

racism killed our city.

btw, how much does the "Springfield's Main Street in 1900" photo look like New Orleans?  Could have been us!

The race card is not a valid excuse for our demise as the metropolis of the South, if it were, then Atlanta, Memphis, Selma, Birmingham and Charlotte would be in far worse shape then us. Having lived through axe handle Sunday, and seen my father active in Civil Rights gave me a unique view of the races in Jacksonville. At some risk to his own executive suite, dad, who managed the NEX Southeast Region, trained the "Shoe Shine Boys" as hair stylist, clerks and cashiers. It was a shot heard around the local Navy facilities. These men became part of my extended family, "uncles" to a small boy. Two of them, a Mr. James Johnson, and a Mr. Johnny Santo, took it on theirselves to teach this little WASP the fine arts of fishing, soul food and some truly great music.  As a result of those bonds, as a single young man, I lived just blocks from Edward Waters College, and in Grand Crossing. My experience in "The Hood" were some of the friendliest, neighborly, and productive times of my life. Meanwhile dad was weathering a fire storm of Department of Defense rules, he prevailed however and the multi-colored curtin came crashing down. I couldn't be more proud of him.

You are correct that several of our Main Street buildings looked like New Orleans, there are still a few remaining on Main as well as downtown. Perhaps we could do a photo essay on the "New Orleans Factor," in our buildings history.

MTrain, I never thought of you and I agreeing on anything (except friendship) and I find your post in this thread 100% right on target. I couldn't agree with you more. As for the hotels, had we been a bit more pro-active and followed the lead of City Commissioner, Saint Elmo Acosta, we would have Light Rail to the beach today (as he proposed). It was Acosta that told the City we needed to cash in on that Florida East Coast branchline to Jacksonville Beach and Mayport, which at the time was up for abandonment. Not only LRT, but Interurban style freight service would have made our City cluster around 20 miles of track. Mayport would have grown from a railroad/maritime coal terminal into one of the greatest ports in the world. It is also likely that the Florida East Coast would have obtained access to the Northside Ports, thus rather then a rail transportation and logistics port city we would also have become a destination. Flagler, did have a fantastic "Hotel Continental," at Atlantic Beach, but not unlike the "Hotel Ormond," it was all wood. Ormond tore theirs down in the 1980's, and ours burned to the ground in the early 1900's.

Today we sit at a junction in the path to the future, either we embrace fixed rail transit and reap the rewards, or we continue to delude ourselves that spending a Billion dollars on glorified bus freeways will save the day.

Thanks for the information on OKC, I was there when this was just talk... I wonder how it became a project? Hee Hee. BTW, did you know that when Oklahoma City closed it's streetcar and interurban lines for "modern flexible bus transit," ridership dropped by 97%. To quote a JTA official when speaking about light rail in Charlotte: "Those  people hate rail, nobody wants it, they want Bus Rapid Transit..." Then the vote came in North Carolina, with streetcars and LRT taking almost 80% of the votes. So much for hating rail...

Racism is the reason the City of Jacksonville annexed itself to the county in 1968 in order to avoid integration, keeping segregation alive and well in our downtown area.  This annexation, in my belief, started the bad zoning, underfunding, lack of city focus and general mismanagement of our city.  So in respect, yes I think it is safe to say that racism did kill our city.

cline

July 08, 2009, 04:04:49 PM
Quote
Racism is the reason the City of Jacksonville annexed itself to the county in 1968 in order to avoid integration, keeping segregation alive and well in our downtown area.  This annexation, in my belief, started the bad zoning, underfunding, lack of city focus and general mismanagement of our city.  So in respect, yes I think it is safe to say that racism did kill our city.

There was plenty of corruption and mismanagement in the city before the consolidation.  The public schools had lost their accredidation and the city was a literal sewage dump with very poor sanitation.  Consolidation played a key role in fixing some of these problems.  I do think you are right in that racism is one of the underlying reasons for the consolidation movement. 

pwhitford

July 08, 2009, 07:21:48 PM
In addition to the horror story that is Jacksonville's transit history, these pictures evoke in me a deeper sadness: the buildings.  All that beautiful building stock gone forever.  Its nauseating.  I believe I recognize some of the building, but most of them are just gone.  We have so far to go just to get back to where we were.   It's really disheartening ...

stjr

July 08, 2009, 08:44:43 PM
Quote
The removal of streetcars shows what happens when a community takes a short sighted view and sells itself out to the money interests and developers for the quick "economic growth" so many of our citizens are always looking for at the expense of our quality of life. Let's sell out our beaches for offshore drilling, our rural and forrested lands for outer beltways, our parks for lower taxes, mass transit and pedestrian friendly avenues for wider, faster roads, historic structures for more parking or "new" office boxes, our cultural and educational institutions for a few pennies in tax savings, etc. Our society, stripped of all these quality of life building blocks is left with what?  A forgettable, flavorless, mass produced, devoid of character, boring, day to day grinding existence?

Excellent summary stjr -- we're already there, are you running for mayor?

Thanks for the vote, Zoo!  ;)  I think someone with this thinking would if they thought people in Jacksonville were on the same page but unfortunately they are not - at least not yet.

Jax has come a long way - but, it started in a deep whole so it has a long way still to go.   Most progressive thinking isn't consistent with the conservatism of our community.  Rather, change agents, even moderate ones (of which I would include myself), are automatically branded as "liberals" and summarily dismissed.

Despite the postings on MetroJax, I don't see a groundswell of support in our community for mass transit over road expansions, for greater preservation of historic properties and natural spaces over new economic development, for emphasizing public education at all levels over cutting taxes, for addressing the underlying social "ills" of our community over endlessly increasing our investment in the "after the fact" solutions of more law and order elements including increasing police, prosectors, and jails, for advancing cultural institutions, not just athletic ones, for focusing on substantive, hardworking, functional contributors and engines of our community rather than the grandstanding people and projects that falsely and superficially promise quick fixes, etc.

If our citizens would pause and reflect, perhaps they could begin to understand that without critical quality of life building blocks,  economic development, improved mobility, taxes on society, law and order, and support for favorite interests will never be achieved on a level that they will find fully satisfactory.  Nor, will we have the ties that bind our citizens to the fabric of our local society where they will wish to further invest their resources and advance our community.

It will be a real change in Jax if Peyton actually convinces the community to swallow something of a property tax increase.  The traditional zeal to ban income taxes, cut property and intangible taxes, keep a lid on gas and sales taxes, dismiss impact and other fees, eliminate tolls, etc. is understandable given the inefficiencies of our politically run (by BOTH parties, mind you!) governments that often squander and/or misprioritize opportunities entrusted to them by the voters.  But it has also resulted in throwing the baby out with the bathwater and led to sweeping and indiscriminate underinvestment in our community.  Is this City willing to carefully sort out the issues and finally show some maturity in solving them?  Or, will we just continue to look the other way, and focus only on our immediate lives, both in terms of time frames and space?

Ocklawaha

July 08, 2009, 09:02:21 PM
Quote
Racism is the reason the City of Jacksonville annexed itself to the county in 1968 in order to avoid integration, keeping segregation alive and well in our downtown area.  This annexation, in my belief, started the bad zoning, underfunding, lack of city focus and general mismanagement of our city.  So in respect, yes I think it is safe to say that racism did kill our city.

There was plenty of corruption and mismanagement in the city before the consolidation.  The public schools had lost their accredidation and the city was a literal sewage dump with very poor sanitation.  Consolidation played a key role in fixing some of these problems.  I do think you are right in that racism is one of the underlying reasons for the consolidation movement. 

Cline, I tend to agree with your slant on this municipal holocaust. Racism may indeed have played a roll in Consolidation or Freeway Construction, but it would be nearly impossible to prove. Bottom line a north - south freeway through the urban area would not have (at the time)a chance of "success" if it missed the city core. There was certainly no way they would have been able to buy out the fabric of downtown and blow a highway through it. So what to do? Run the lines along the edge of the urbanized zones and follow the cheapest land available. Sadly the cheapest land would be owned by our African-American brothers and sisters. A century of neglect and second class status insured the routes not only for our freeway, but every other freeway in the country took out the lowest priced property within an acceptable boundary. Mexicans? Blow it away. Blacks? Bulldoze the hood. Puerto Rican? Move them out. The question should be, was this due to price, speed, racism or a wicked combination of the above.

Consolidation did indeed fix an ailing city with horrible schools and layer upon layer of piecemeal services, providers, or lack thereof. Under Hans Tanzler, the Consolidated City completed a complete reconstruction of downtown plumbing, utilities etc... This was the first rebuild effort EVER.
Transportation moved to the front of American Cities of the day, but of course it was all highway.

Today, we have a problem, WE NEED STREETCARS AND A FINISHED SKYWAY AND WE NEED TO ENCOURAGE AMTRAK TO MAKE US THE HUB WE ONCE WERE! We need it yesterday, we need it now, and turning this thread into something else is only going to create wasted steam. Focus my city, Focus! We need ideas, movers and shakers and no more pouring our budget down highway manholes.

Jason

July 09, 2009, 11:00:15 AM
On a side note, I found out yesterday after speaking with a driver, that Jacksonville is no longer the regional hub for Greyhound, Orlando is.

We HAVE to at least keep the train hub here.

Dog Walker

July 09, 2009, 02:07:08 PM
The real racist push for Consolidation was to prevent the City of Jacksonville from having a black mayor and council.  As white people moved out of the old city limits it became evident that African-Americans were about to be or were the majority.

City government was almost totally corrupt at the time too. 

The "powers-that-be" decided that they could outvote the two or three African-American members that would get onto the Council and they could stay in control of the consolidated city and county.  They did too!

Doug San Diego

October 04, 2009, 08:30:05 PM
Another fascinating and well researched history.

An ironic twist comes from San Diego. The PCCs which were scrapped in 1949 are due to re-appear on the streets of Centre City by the end of 2009. There are only four being restored at the moment, but conceptual approval has been given by MTS to run lines to Balboa Park and Lindbergh Field (our airport). It will be interesting to see how the public reacts. All work is being done through the not for profit San Diego Vintage Trolley, although Centre City development corporation has made a contribution with the stipulation that  these not be a cute, tourist bauble, but a real transport alternative for residents and visitors. The most recent information can be seen at SDERA.org. Go to newsletters.

With all the existing rail lines in Jacksonville, vintage streetcars might be a promising option there, as well.

thelakelander

October 04, 2009, 08:37:51 PM
Thanks for this update.  We'll have to keep our eyes on this San Diego vintage trolley project.

AaroniusLives

December 03, 2009, 04:00:53 PM
Quote
Jax fell behind the rest of Florida because, IMO, the leadership here in our great city fell behind those in other more progressive cities. As those cities grew, Miami, Tampa, Orlando, they went and planned for ways to move people around the cities, where our leaders just sat by and did nothing to help manage population growth. If we did anything, we built bridges to Arlington and the Southside to further advance growth outside of downtown. Extreme hubris by our leaders of the 40s and 50s lead to where we are today with our current system.

You are giving way too much credit to the leadership (or lack thereof) of other cities in Florida. I actually had to move away from the Sunshine State to see how utterly innane our "leaders" are. Miami (my hometown,) is well-known for being poorly planned, as well as having a highly corrupt county government. The Miami MetroFail runs in a perfect curve exactly away from two of the three places everybody wants to go: the airport and the beach. The only reason South Florida is remotely embracing transit or density of any kind is because they've run out of room, having filled up their land with mostly suburbia from the ocean to the Everglades. Trust me, if TPTB could drain the 'Glades for more sprawl, they would.

As for Tampa (my unfortunate home for a few years,) a great deal of that metro region is typical of the rest of the state and country: suburbia as far as the eye can see. Moreover, Tampa doesn't even pretend to care what it looks like, and as such, most resembles a strip mall in Ohio, as opposed to the tropics. They've had a light rail plan for years that has yet to amount to anything.

And Orlando is almost unforgivable regarding transit and development. Right at their doorstep is a model of idealized transit: Walt Disney World. And yet, Orlando is frequently a traffic nightmare, and clearly has followed the model of "gated community, mall, strip center, gas station, CVS" to oblivion. That region could have even made more of an impact, being that Orlando was a cow town of basically nothing until Disney supercharged the area. That they chose sprawl is insane.

Outside of South Florida, none of the metropolitan statistical areas in the state are especially progressive, or more so than Jax (and Jacksonville, in my opinion, is a much better, much more beautiful metro than Tampa.) As for South Florida, from the beginning, they were shaped by three distinctions: land area, migration demographics, and desire. The narrow slice of land has forced South Florida at every stage of swamp drain to economize their land plots. As both the 6th burrough of New York and the American capital of Latin America, the demographics are different...and thus, so is the culture from los estados unidos, si? And finally, from the beginning, Miami wanted to be "big," to be "remembered." That desire has shaped the metro. Competence, especially regarding mass transit? Not so much!

JaxNative68

December 07, 2009, 09:41:04 AM
i'm not as long winded as some of you, but the to the one's who filled in my incomplete statement of racism killing our city, thanks.  took the word out of my head.

north miami

December 07, 2009, 11:32:42 AM
The real racist push for Consolidation was to prevent the City of Jacksonville from having a black mayor and council.  As white people moved out of the old city limits it became evident that African-Americans were about to be or were the majority.

City government was almost totally corrupt at the time too. 

The "powers-that-be" decided that they could outvote the two or three African-American members that would get onto the Council and they could stay in control of the consolidated city and county.  They did too!

In fact, I have often been told by many that the Consolidation push of the 60's was driven in part by racial matters as Dog Walker describes.

I find most Consolidation narratives lacking:
How many are aware that the 'brilliant' Consolidation light bulb is as ancient as 1923? Dreamed up by Telfair Stockton and Patrick Odom,having for it's purpose the combination of duties and functions of certain services within the county...and to curtail expenses by the combiination of county and city offices.Joint resolution passes House and Senate  **Senator J.Turner Butler**      "....giving power to the Legislature to establish,change,and abolish a local government territorially throughout Duval County".In an election the plan failed.

By the 60's "Corruption" became a rally point.
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