Author Topic: Perseverance Mars Rover  (Read 36442 times)

BridgeTroll

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Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
« Reply #90 on: July 26, 2021, 07:10:08 AM »
Another successful flight... link contains video and description of the flight...

https://www.space.com/mars-helicopter-ingenuity-completes-first-mile-10th-flight

In a boat at sea one of the men began to bore a hole in the bottom of the boat. On being remonstrating with, he answered, "I am only boring under my own seat." "Yes," said his companions, "but when the sea rushes in we shall all be drowned with you."

BridgeTroll

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Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
« Reply #91 on: August 12, 2021, 07:08:17 AM »
Eleventh flight was mainly a reposition...

https://mars.nasa.gov/news/9012/nasas-ingenuity-mars-helicopter-spots-perseverance-from-above/

Can you find Perseverance?

In a boat at sea one of the men began to bore a hole in the bottom of the boat. On being remonstrating with, he answered, "I am only boring under my own seat." "Yes," said his companions, "but when the sea rushes in we shall all be drowned with you."

BridgeTroll

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Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
« Reply #92 on: August 17, 2021, 08:17:50 AM »
Preparing for flight 12...



Quote
This annotated image depicts the ground tracks of NASA’s Perseverance rover (white) and Ingenuity Mars Helicopter (green) since arriving on Mars on Feb. 18, 2021. The upper yellow ellipse depicts the “South Séítah” region, which Ingenuity is scheduled to fly over during its 12th sortie. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Flight plan details...

https://mars.nasa.gov/technology/helicopter/status/321/better-by-the-dozen-ingenuity-takes-on-flight-12/
In a boat at sea one of the men began to bore a hole in the bottom of the boat. On being remonstrating with, he answered, "I am only boring under my own seat." "Yes," said his companions, "but when the sea rushes in we shall all be drowned with you."

BridgeTroll

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Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
« Reply #93 on: August 18, 2021, 06:45:55 AM »
In a boat at sea one of the men began to bore a hole in the bottom of the boat. On being remonstrating with, he answered, "I am only boring under my own seat." "Yes," said his companions, "but when the sea rushes in we shall all be drowned with you."

BridgeTroll

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In a boat at sea one of the men began to bore a hole in the bottom of the boat. On being remonstrating with, he answered, "I am only boring under my own seat." "Yes," said his companions, "but when the sea rushes in we shall all be drowned with you."

BridgeTroll

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Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
« Reply #95 on: September 08, 2021, 06:56:36 AM »
In a boat at sea one of the men began to bore a hole in the bottom of the boat. On being remonstrating with, he answered, "I am only boring under my own seat." "Yes," said his companions, "but when the sea rushes in we shall all be drowned with you."

Snaketoz

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Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
« Reply #96 on: September 09, 2021, 09:36:13 PM »
14,000 Posts!  Do you ever rest?  Congrats...

BridgeTroll

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Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
« Reply #97 on: September 10, 2021, 06:54:44 AM »
14,000 Posts!  Do you ever rest?  Congrats...

Lol... never even noticed. I have been here a long time...
In a boat at sea one of the men began to bore a hole in the bottom of the boat. On being remonstrating with, he answered, "I am only boring under my own seat." "Yes," said his companions, "but when the sea rushes in we shall all be drowned with you."

BridgeTroll

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Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
« Reply #98 on: September 16, 2021, 07:54:17 AM »
Flying on Mars is getting tougher...

https://mars.nasa.gov/technology/helicopter/status/334/flying-on-mars-is-getting-harder-and-harder/

Quote
In the months since we flew for the first time, we have learned a great deal about operating a helicopter on Mars. We have explored Ingenuity’s strengths and limitations in detail, leveraging the former and working around the latter to operationalize it as a highly capable reconnaissance platform.

With the benefit of the knowledge acquired, conducting flights on Mars has in most ways become easier than it was at the outset. But in one important way it is actually getting more difficult every day: I’m talking about the atmospheric density, which was already extremely low and is now dropping further due to seasonal variations on Mars.

When we designed and tested Ingenuity on Earth, we expected Ingenuity’s five-flight mission to be completed within the first few months after Perseverance’s landing in February 2021. We therefore prepared for flights at atmospheric densities between 0.0145 and 0.0185 kg/m3, which is equivalent to 1.2-1.5% of Earth’s atmospheric density at sea level. With Ingenuity in its sixth month of operation, however, we have entered a season where the densities in Jezero Crater are dropping to even lower levels. In the coming months we may see densities as low as 0.012 kg/m3 (1.0% of Earth’s density) during the afternoon hours that are preferable for flight.

The difference may seem small, but it has a significant impact on Ingenuity’s ability to fly. At our lower design limit for atmospheric density (0.0145 kg/m3), we know that Ingenuity has a thrust margin of at least 30%. Thrust margin refers to the excess thrust that Ingenuity can produce above and beyond what is required to hover. That additional thrust is needed on takeoffs and climbs, during maneuvers, and also when tracking terrain with varying height. But if the atmospheric density were to drop to 0.012 kg/m3 in the coming months, our helicopter’s thrust margin could drop to as low as 8%, which means that Ingenuity would be operating close to aerodynamic stall (a condition where further increases in the blade’s angle of attack does not produce more lift, only more drag).

Thankfully, there is a way to tackle this issue – but it involves spinning the rotors even faster than we have been doing up to now. In fact, they will have to spin faster than we have ever attempted with Ingenuity or any of our test helicopters on Earth. This is not something we take lightly, which is why our next operations on Mars will be focused on carefully testing out higher rotor speeds in preparation for future flights.

We will begin by performing a high-speed spin of the rotor without leaving the ground, reaching a peak rotor speed of 2,800 rpm (more than a 10% increase relative to our prior Mars experience of 2,537 rpm). If all goes well, we will follow this with a short test flight at a slightly lower rotor speed of 2,700 rpm. This would be our 14th flight and (hopefully) a relatively boring one compared to any of our more recent flights, where we flew long distances to acquire images of interest for the Perseverance rover team. Occurring no earlier than Friday, Sept. 17 (with data coming down no earlier than Saturday morning), the short hop would have Ingenuity take off, climb to 16 feet (5 meters), perform a small translation (sideways move), and then land again. And while the results from a Flight 14 should be less than riveting, the significant increase in available rpms (from 2,537 to 2,700) for future helicopter operations will provide us the option to perform scouting missions for Perseverance at lower atmospheric densities. It also leaves some wiggle room if we decide an additional rpm increase is needed later.

A speed increase like this comes with a number of potential issues. One of these has to do with aerodynamics: A rotor speed of 2,800 rpm, in combination with wind and helicopter motion, could cause the tips of the rotor blades to encounter the air at nearly 0.8 Mach – that is, 80% of the speed of sound on Mars. (The speed of sound on Mars is somewhat lower than we are used to – about ¾ the speed of sound on Earth.) If the blade tips get sufficiently close to the speed of sound, they will experience a very large increase in aerodynamic drag that would be prohibitive for flight. For Ingenuity’s rotor we do not expect to encounter this phenomenon until even higher Mach numbers, but this has never been confirmed in testing on Earth.

Another potential issue is unknown resonances in the helicopter structure. Like all mechanical systems, Ingenuity has resonances that can lead to large vibrations when excited at particular frequencies. It is important to ensure that there are no significant resonances at the rotor speed used for flight, as this could cause damage to hardware and lead to a deterioration in sensor readings needed by the flight control system.

Additional demands will also be put on several components of Ingenuity’s design: The motors will need to spin faster, the electrical system will need to deliver more power, and the entire rotor system will need to withstand the higher loads that come with increased rotor speeds. It all adds up to a significant challenge, but by approaching the issue slowly and methodically, we hope to fully check out the system at higher rotor speeds and enable Ingenuity to keep flying in the months ahead. Stay tuned for updates.
In a boat at sea one of the men began to bore a hole in the bottom of the boat. On being remonstrating with, he answered, "I am only boring under my own seat." "Yes," said his companions, "but when the sea rushes in we shall all be drowned with you."

BridgeTroll

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Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
« Reply #99 on: September 29, 2021, 07:17:56 AM »
Mars and earth are in solar conjunction precluding communications with the rover for a few weeks. This happens every two years.
In a boat at sea one of the men began to bore a hole in the bottom of the boat. On being remonstrating with, he answered, "I am only boring under my own seat." "Yes," said his companions, "but when the sea rushes in we shall all be drowned with you."

BridgeTroll

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Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
« Reply #100 on: November 02, 2021, 04:46:15 PM »
Perseverance is up to flight 14... pretty cool talk about autonomous driving on Mars...

https://mars.nasa.gov/mars2020/mission/status/342/driving-farther-and-faster-with-autonomous-navigation-and-helicopter-scouting/

Quote
We’ve been driving on Mars since 1997, beginning with the 83 sol Sojourner rover mission. Since 2003 with the arrival of the Spirit and Opportunity rovers, followed by the Curiosity rover in 2012 and Perseverance rover in 2021 we have been continuously exploring the surface of Mars. The Perseverance mobility system was designed to enable faster and more precise autonomous driving than any prior mission. It has wheels optimized for rugged terrain, cameras with fast exposure times, wide navigation camera “Navcam” field of view, and a dedicated second computer and Field Gate Programmable Array “FPGA” for fast image processing. Visual Odometry, “VO”, tracks the motion of features in images as it is driving to provide accurate position estimates and measure slip. “Thinking-While-Driving” capability allows Perseverance to continuously drive while performing VO, generating a map of terrain geometry, and autonomously blending drive arcs and selecting a safe and efficient drive path.

An example of how Autonav helps is the drive to the area called “Citadelle” where the rover collected its first rock samples. From where Perseverance was positioned on Aug. 20, 2021 (Sol 178), it needed to drive about 84 meters upslope crossing a narrow gap in a hazardous ridge toward the end to get to Citadelle. Images from the rover Navcams did not cover the gap. Images from Mars orbiters are valuable for strategic route planning, but not all rover hazards can be identified in them. Using AutoNav, Perseverance was able to drive all the way to the gap and autonomously find a safe path through the gap in a single drive.

While Perseverance was conducting the sampling campaign at Citadelle, Ingenuity was performing flights over the rover's next potential sampling location in southern Séítah from an altitude of about 10m off the surface. Using the Ingenuity Return to Earth “RTE” camera images from Flight #12, the operations team was able to confirm the traversability of the planned strategic route into the area. On Sept. 12, 2021 (Sol 200) Perseverance drove 175.15m in a single sol setting up for the entry into Séítah after going as far as time available for driving would allow. After an 8m segment to build the initial terrain map, the remainder 167m of the drive used AutoNav – the farthest any of our Mars rovers have driven autonomously in a single sol.

AutoNav and helicopter scouting are helping Perseverance navigate efficiently between regions of interest and focus more time on science campaigns. The road ahead Is looking pretty exciting as we explore the full range of Perseverance and Ingenuity capabilities.

 
In a boat at sea one of the men began to bore a hole in the bottom of the boat. On being remonstrating with, he answered, "I am only boring under my own seat." "Yes," said his companions, "but when the sea rushes in we shall all be drowned with you."

BridgeTroll

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Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
« Reply #101 on: November 13, 2021, 08:12:50 AM »
https://mars.nasa.gov/mars2020/mission/status/345/mars-or-arrakis/

Quote
Mars – or Arrakis?
Written by Erin Gibbons, Student Collaborator at McGill University

Who hates deep sand traps more than golfers?

Mars rover drivers (and probably Fremen too).

When your vehicle is well over 50 million kilometers away from the nearest tow company, getting your wheels stuck in sand can be a mission-critical problem. Such a predicament ended the Spirit rover’s mission in 2009.

Yet Perseverance is currently winding her way through the maze of towering sand dunes that characterize the Séítah region of Jezero crater (“Séítah” means "amidst the sand" in the Navajo language, a well-fitting name). A recent photo beamed back from the HiRISE camera (High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter shows the extent to which the nearby dunes dwarf the rover, which itself is the size of a small SUV.

What enticed the Science Team into this treacherous zone laden with sand traps? The answer lies in our observations. After Perseverance landed and turned her eyes (cameras) towards Séítah, the Science Team was treated to a compelling view of diversely layered rocks. We saw thin layers and thick layers, planar layers and tilted layers, featureless layers and layers with protrusions. These observations garnered excitement amongst us because we know, from studying Earth, that an outcrop of layered rocks serves as a geological time-line. Each layer records information about the environmental conditions present when the rock formed and changes in layer thicknesses or textural expressions indicates an environmental change. Further, by studying the directions that the layers tilted, we determined that the rocks of Séítah are likely the most ancient rocks exposed in all of Jezero crater. Séítah therefore represents the beginning of the accessible geologic record and offers a once-in-a-mission opportunity to explore the full breadth of landscape evolution.

However, from a distance, it is difficult to determine what that evolving landscape actually looked like. Numerous hypotheses have been proposed for the origin of the layered rocks in Séítah, including sedimentation in an ancient lake or river with varying flow energy, airfall of volcanic ash, airfall of material dislodged by an impact event, cooled lava flows, or a magmatic intrusion. Each one of these possibilities carries with it a (very) different interpretation of how habitable Jezero crater was in the deep past and deciphering which scenario is most correct requires a closer look.


Which is why we braved the sand. As of this writing, the rover is parked in front of one of the captivating layered rocks that we spied from a distance, informally named Brac. On sol 253 (November 5th, 2021, Earth time) Perseverance reached out and used the abrader drill bit and the Gaseous Dust Removal Tool to scrape a few millimeters of rock off the surface of Brac to expose the fresh, un-weathered surface for study. The Science Team is currently poring over the images and planning follow up analyses that will bring us one step closer to unraveling how these rocks formed and whether that environment could have been favourable for life.   
In a boat at sea one of the men began to bore a hole in the bottom of the boat. On being remonstrating with, he answered, "I am only boring under my own seat." "Yes," said his companions, "but when the sea rushes in we shall all be drowned with you."

BridgeTroll

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Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
« Reply #102 on: November 13, 2021, 08:16:08 AM »
Click link for interactive map of Perseverance travels and helicopter Ingenuity location...

https://mars.nasa.gov/mars2020/mission/where-is-the-rover/
In a boat at sea one of the men began to bore a hole in the bottom of the boat. On being remonstrating with, he answered, "I am only boring under my own seat." "Yes," said his companions, "but when the sea rushes in we shall all be drowned with you."

BridgeTroll

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Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
« Reply #103 on: November 21, 2021, 08:26:55 AM »
Ingenuity 13th flight recorded from Perseverance...

<a href="https://www.youtube.com/v/qpqhYEkudvw" target="_blank" class="new_win">https://www.youtube.com/v/qpqhYEkudvw</a>

In a boat at sea one of the men began to bore a hole in the bottom of the boat. On being remonstrating with, he answered, "I am only boring under my own seat." "Yes," said his companions, "but when the sea rushes in we shall all be drowned with you."