The Jaxson

Community => Science and Technology => Topic started by: BridgeTroll on June 21, 2020, 08:30:43 AM

Title: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on June 21, 2020, 08:30:43 AM
I have followed and posted about the Mars rover program for years and am super excited about the launch of Perseverance in July.  Below is a link to a really good primer of the launch, entry, descent and landing, landing site, instrumentation.

Jezero crater appears to be a ancient flood plain with clear and obvious former water channels. One of the most exciting instruments is a helicopter with flights up to 15 feet high, 60 feet in distance and 90 seconds in duration.

Please take a few minutes and click the link below to learn more...  8)

https://www.popularmechanics.com/space/moon-mars/a32894671/nasa-perserverance-rover-2020/
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: Charles Hunter on June 21, 2020, 09:07:08 AM
Very cool!  Looking forward to new discoveries.
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on June 21, 2020, 10:30:52 AM
NASA links...

https://mars.nasa.gov/mars2020/

Mars helicopter Ingenuity... https://mars.nasa.gov/technology/helicopter/

https://youtu.be/0RQWv1ybsjM
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: Charles Hunter on June 21, 2020, 12:01:30 PM
I watched the helicopter deployment video, and have a question.
It shows the protective panel dropping, then the 'copter being flipped over and dropped to the surface. Does that rotation move the helicopter out from under the lander? Otherwise, it would drop on that cowling, and taking off would be harder.
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on June 21, 2020, 02:11:05 PM
Good question. I don’t know but the copter is supposed to fly multiple times so my guess is it reloads onto the rover
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on June 24, 2020, 07:01:33 AM
Good question. I don’t know but the copter is supposed to fly multiple times so my guess is it reloads onto the rover

It flies multiple times but does not come back to the rover.   Great article describing the research and testing of the helicopter...

https://dnyuz.com/2020/06/23/nasa-mars-helicopter-will-be-red-planets-wright-brothers-moment/
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on July 01, 2020, 08:01:44 AM
Two week delay...

https://spaceflightnow.com/2020/06/30/nasa-delays-mars-rover-launch-to-no-earlier-than-july-30/
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: marcuscnelson on July 01, 2020, 10:03:50 AM
Damn. As long as it helps them get it right.
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on July 11, 2020, 07:16:15 AM
Slowly but surely...  8)

https://spaceflightnow.com/2020/07/09/mars-rover-mated-with-atlas-5-launcher-after-teams-deal-with-coronavirus-cases/
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on July 18, 2020, 06:29:29 PM
Great video comparing previous rovers and their capabilities with Perseverance...  8)

https://youtu.be/95hMM2u6Fgw
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on July 22, 2020, 02:50:48 PM
UAE launched their rover this past Sunday... China is next...

https://spaceflightnow.com/2020/07/21/china-moves-massive-rocket-into-place-for-ambitious-mars-shot/
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on July 27, 2020, 07:57:13 AM
The Chinese launch was successful... Perseverance due to launch July 30. The link contains a great description of the Chinese mission...

https://spaceflightnow.com/2020/07/23/china-launches-robotic-mission-to-orbit-land-and-drive-on-mars/
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on July 28, 2020, 08:02:49 AM
Weather looks good for Thursday morning launch... 8)

https://spaceflightnow.com/2020/07/27/good-weather-predicted-for-nasas-mars-rover-launch-thursday/
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: JeffreyS on July 28, 2020, 10:32:18 AM
I am guessing a second mission helps with getting the samples back to earth? Am I reading the sample collection goals correct? Very exciting mission.
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on July 28, 2020, 05:00:24 PM
I am guessing a second mission helps with getting the samples back to earth? Am I reading the sample collection goals correct? Very exciting mission.

My excitement is  for the helicopter... wayyyyy too cool...
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on July 29, 2020, 08:09:20 AM
NASA’s Perseverance rover is set for launch Thursday from Cape Canaveral during a two-hour window opening at 7:50 a.m. EDT (1150 GMT). A United Launch Alliance Atlas 5 rocket will fire spacecraft away from Earth with a relative velocity of 24,785 mph, or about 11 kilometers per second.

That’s enough speed to break free of Earth’s gravitational grip and speed toward Mars, aiming for the point in space where the Red Planet will be Feb. 18, 2021, the Mars 2020 mission’s designated landing date.
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on July 30, 2020, 01:30:57 PM
War of the Worlds  reversed... If you were a Martian looking towards earth today you might see three separate rockets headed for your planet...  :D

The USA joined China and UAE with a probe to Mars today... all should arrive around February...
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on August 12, 2020, 01:04:43 PM
Cool video of launch from the rocket...  8)

https://www.youtube.com/v/NAkEOHhYuSo

Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on November 21, 2020, 07:59:36 AM
100 days until landing...  8)

https://www.space.com/mars-rover-perseverance-100-days-landing
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on January 13, 2021, 07:59:47 AM
February 18...

https://youtu.be/rzmd7RouGrM
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on February 10, 2021, 05:38:22 PM
UAE and China have arrived at Mars and are successfully orbiting... Perseverance arrives in a week and will bypass orbiting and go straight to the landing site...
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on February 16, 2021, 07:19:10 AM
The landing is Thursday afternoon... live coverage begins at 2:15 on NASA TV, nasa.gov, or space.com
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: Jason on February 16, 2021, 11:21:13 AM
I can't wait to see this landing.  Thank you again for keeping this thread updated BT!
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on February 17, 2021, 06:28:25 AM
I can't wait to see this landing.  Thank you again for keeping this thread updated BT!
If successful it will be epic!
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on February 17, 2021, 07:29:51 AM
Krispy Kreme Mars doughnut...  8)

https://www.space.com/perseverance-mars-rover-landing-krispy-kreme-donut
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on February 18, 2021, 03:38:28 PM
Very nervous... vehicle is on its own now...
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on February 18, 2021, 03:53:05 PM
Parachute deployment
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on February 18, 2021, 03:56:56 PM
Wow... safe on ground
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on February 18, 2021, 04:00:36 PM
Already transmitting pictures
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: marcuscnelson on February 18, 2021, 05:04:06 PM
That was pretty impressive. Way to go working on this thread BT! Here's to some of us hopefully joining that little (not really) guy on the surface one day!
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on February 18, 2021, 05:44:53 PM
The excitement of the moon and Mars landings is huge for me... I grew up an Apollo junkie and Mars has the same effect for me... it's too bad the country is so blase' about it...
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: jaxlongtimer on February 20, 2021, 01:48:02 AM
First picture ever of a landing on an extraterrestrial body.  Perseverance about 6.5 feet before touchdown on the Martian surface:

(https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/styles/full_width/public/thumbnails/image/rover_drop.jpg?itok=Szjpa6ka)

Quote
Incredible new images shared by Perseverance rover after Mars landing

(CNN) After safely landing on the surface of Mars Thursday, NASA's Perseverance rover has sent back a never-before-seen view: what it looks like to land on Mars.

The rover also returned some beautiful postcards of its landing site.

The first image shared during a NASA press conference Friday was "exhilarating" for the team when they received it. It shows the rover nearing the Martian surface during entry, descent and landing. A camera on the descent stage of the spacecraft captured the perspective, something that wasn't possible on previous missions.

"This shot from a camera on my 'jetpack' captures me in midair, just before my wheels touched down," according to a tweet from the Perseverance Twitter account. "The moment that my team dreamed of for years, now a reality. Dare mighty things."

Little dust plumes can be seen kicking up from the Martian surface, stirred by the engines landing the rover when it was just 6.5 feet above the surface.

"The team is overwhelmed with excitement and joy to have successfully landed another rover on the surface of Mars," said Adam Steltzner, the rover's chief engineer. "When we do such investments, we do them for humanity, and we do them as a gesture of our humanity."

Steltzner cited iconic space images from the Apollo mission, like Buzz Aldrin on the surface of the moon, Voyager's first image of Saturn and the Hubble Space Telescope's awe-inspiring "Pillars of Creation" photo.

"We can only hope, in our efforts to engineer spacecraft and explore our solar system, that we might be able contribute yet another iconic image to this collection, and I'm happy to say that I'm hopeful that today we can with this."

While the first images returned by the rover Thursday evening were black and white glimpses showing it safely landed on Mars, color images made available Friday show the characteristic red color of the Martian surface.


(https://cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/210219133901-perseverance-first-color-image-lead-exlarge-169.jpg)

"An open horizon, with so much to explore. Can't wait to get going," the Perseverance account tweeted.

Rocks are also seen scattered across the flat surface of the landing site in Jezero Crater, but they're small when compared to the large rover wheels.

(https://cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/210219133818-perserverance-rock-holes-exlarge-169.jpg)

Another tweet with the image read, "I love rocks. Look at these right next to my wheel. Are they volcanic or sedimentary? What story do they tell? Can't wait to find out."

The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's HiRISE camera, which flew over the landing site as Perseverance was coming in for a landing, captured an incredible view as the spacecraft's parachutes opened.

(https://cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/210219134046-perseverance-hirise-landing-exlarge-169.jpeg)

"The Beauty of Flight! HiRISE captured this image of @NASAPersevere on its way to the landing site from over 700 km (435 mi) away!" the HiRISE account tweeted.

"If you look below to the little circle, this was our eventual touchdown point," said Aaron Stehura, deputy phase lead for entry, descent and landing. "You can see it's near the river delta that we've talked about."

Stehura also reflected on the moment the team saw the image of the rover from the perspective of the descent stage.

"This is something that we've never seen before. It was stunning and the team was awestruck. And, you know, there's just a feeling of victory that we're able to capture these and share them with the world."

The teams also shared a little insight about how they celebrated after the landing. Some members of the team enjoyed some ice cream at safe social distances outside, many virtual parties were enjoyed and team members slept the best they have in a long time, knowing Perseverance was safe....

https://www.cnn.com/2021/02/19/world/mars-rover-new-images-scn-trnd/index.html (https://www.cnn.com/2021/02/19/world/mars-rover-new-images-scn-trnd/index.html)
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on February 20, 2021, 08:11:04 AM
Thanks for posting JLT!  Ingenuity has checked in...

Mission controllers at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California have received the first status report from the Ingenuity Mars Helicopter, which landed Feb. 18, 2021, at Jezero Crater attached to the belly of the agency’s Mars 2020 Perseverance rover. The downlink, which arrived at 3:30 p.m. PST (6:30 p.m. EST) via a connection through the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, indicates that both the helicopter, which will remain attached to the rover for 30 to 60 days, and its base station (an electrical box on the rover that stores and routes communications between the rotorcraft and Earth) are operating as expected.

https://mars.nasa.gov/news/8867/nasas-mars-helicopter-reports-in/
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on February 23, 2021, 06:30:24 AM
Here is video from the Lander descent and landing including parachute deployment...  8)

https://mars.nasa.gov/mars2020/multimedia/videos/?v=461
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on February 23, 2021, 06:43:00 AM
The rover has already beamed back over 4000 pictures.
This is the link to the NASA Perseverance update site... lots of great stuff...

https://mars.nasa.gov/resources/25622/perseverance-navcams-360-degree-panorama/

Her is 360 degree panorama ...

https://mars.nasa.gov/resources/25622/perseverance-navcams-360-degree-panorama/
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on February 24, 2021, 08:19:22 AM
This link shows rover's exact location and going forward will chart it's progress... it is interactive... 8)

https://mars.nasa.gov/mars2020/mission/where-is-the-rover/
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on February 26, 2021, 07:18:00 AM
Send your name to Perseverance along with 11 million people... my moniker is eched on Perseverance along with Spirit, Opportunity,  and Curiosity ...  8)

https://mars.nasa.gov/news/8872/nearly-11-million-names-of-earthlings-are-on-mars-perseverance/
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on March 06, 2021, 07:35:17 AM
(https://mars.nasa.gov/system/resources/detail_files/25691_3-PIA24340-NavCam-Left-800.gif)

(https://mars.nasa.gov/system/resources/detail_files/25690_2-PIA24338-800.gif)
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on March 06, 2021, 07:40:25 AM
(https://mars.nasa.gov/system/resources/detail_files/25700_PIA24486-Drive-Map.png)

March 05, 2021

This image shows two possible routes (blue and purple) to the fan-shaped deposit of sediments known as a delta for NASA’s Perseverance rover, which landed at the spot marked with a white dot in Mars’ Jezero Crater. The yellow line marks a notional traverse exploring the delta. The base image is from the High Resolution Imaging Experiment (HiRISE) camera aboard NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO).
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on March 18, 2021, 07:32:07 AM
Helicopter flights beginning the first week of April...  8)
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on March 23, 2021, 07:32:49 AM
Protective shield dropped exposing Ingenuity... rover will then move to launch site and deploy copter...

Video shows entire process...

https://www.space.com/mars-perseverance-rover-helicopter-ingenuity-unveiled?jwsource=cl
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: Jason on March 23, 2021, 08:42:53 AM
Can't wait!!!
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on March 23, 2021, 02:05:13 PM
I'm a little bit miffed by NASA's coverage of Perseverance. I actually get more up to date information from third party sites like space.com...
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on March 24, 2021, 07:53:02 AM
Map of Ingenuity Helicopter Flight Zone: This image shows where NASA’s Ingenuity Mars Helicopter will take its test flights. Helicopter engineers added the locations for the rover landing site, the airfield, and the flight zone.

(https://mars.nasa.gov/system/resources/detail_files/25744_PIA24494-1200.jpg)

Van Zyl Overlook: The location where NASA’s Perseverance rover will observe Ingenuity’s attempt at powered controlled flight at Mars is called "Van Zyl Overlook."

(https://mars.nasa.gov/system/resources/detail_files/25745_PIA24435-1200.jpg)

The link below is the entire article explaining the detailed steps before, during, and after the first flight attempt.

https://mars.nasa.gov/news/8896/nasa-ingenuity-mars-helicopter-prepares-for-first-flight/
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on March 31, 2021, 07:01:36 AM
While information regarding the Ingenuity deployment is sparse NASA publishes raw photos from the rover showing the copter fully extented and ready to be dropped from the rover.

(https://mars.nasa.gov/mars2020-raw-images/pub/ods/surface/sol/00039/ids/edr/browse/shrlc/SI1_0039_0670409192_132ECM_N0031392SRLC07000_000085J01_800.jpg)

Partially deployed...

(https://mars.nasa.gov/mars2020-raw-images/pub/ods/surface/sol/00037/ids/edr/browse/shrlc/SIF_0037_0670232368_148EBY_N0031392SRLC07020_0000LUJ01_800.jpg)

Here is a link to all raw photos...

https://mars.nasa.gov/mars2020/multimedia/raw-images/
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on April 01, 2021, 07:25:13 AM
A small piece of the Wright Flyer is attached to Ingenuity...

Quote
A tiny piece of the Wright brothers' history-making plane will take to the skies on Mars a few weeks from now, if all goes according to plan.

NASA's Mars Helicopter Ingenuity, which could lift off on the Red Planet as soon as April 8, bears a tiny swatch of fabric from one wing of Flyer 1, the plane that in December 1903 made the first powered flights on Earth, agency officials announced Tuesday (March 23).

The Wright brothers ushered in "aerial mobility as a dimension for us to be able to travel here on Earth," Bob Balaram, Ingenuity chief engineer at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Southern California, said during a news conference Tuesday. "In the same way, we are hoping that Ingenuity also allows us to expand and open up aerial mobility on Mars."

The Flyer 1 swatch, which is about the size of a postage stamp, is attached to a small cable beneath Ingenuity's solar panel, Balaram added.
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on April 02, 2021, 08:50:24 AM
Not sure why, but they are pushing the date for the first flight to April 11... Meanwhile... here is an interesting interview with the woman lead engineer Mimi Aung...

https://astronomy.com/news/2021/04/the-inside-story-behind-the-historic-first-flight-on-mars
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on April 04, 2021, 08:00:47 AM
Ingenuity has been dropped to the surface...

https://www.space.com/mars-helicopter-ingenuity-touches-down-martian-surface

Quote
The first helicopter on Mars is officially on Martian soil.

NASA's Mars helicopter Ingenuity touched down on the surface of the Red Planet after being dropped by its mother ship, the Perseverance rover, the space agency announced late Saturday (April 4). The helicopter's first flight is just over a week away.

"#MarsHelicopter touchdown confirmed! Its 293 million mile (471 million km) journey aboard @NASAPersevere ended with the final drop of 4 inches (10 cm) from the rover's belly to the surface of Mars today," officials with NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California wrote in a Twitter announcement. "Next milestone? Survive the night."

(https://cdn.mos.cms.futurecdn.net/6mKj5usCoVdZ9JBvBJAHYW-970-80.jpg.webp)

(https://cdn.mos.cms.futurecdn.net/zSt9vsGtrApuFiN5oM6cfW-970-80.jpg.webp)

(https://cdn.mos.cms.futurecdn.net/92g7M6WDvs7EjNaX2d7tMW-970-80.jpg.webp)
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on April 06, 2021, 07:17:22 AM
First night alone... and survived...

https://mars.nasa.gov/news/8906/nasas-mars-helicopter-survives-first-cold-martian-night-on-its-own/
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on April 07, 2021, 07:04:32 AM
(https://mars.nasa.gov/system/resources/detail_files/25784_1-PIA24547-Mastcam-Z-Gives-Ingenuity-a-Close-up-web.jpg)
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on April 08, 2021, 08:18:45 AM
Selfie... with Ingenuity  8)

(https://mars.nasa.gov/system/resources/detail_files/25790_First_selfie-1200.gif)
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: Jason on April 08, 2021, 11:55:03 AM
This maiden flight is going to be EPIC!!!  :-O
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on April 08, 2021, 01:25:32 PM
This maiden flight is going to be EPIC!!!  :-O
Fingers crossed...
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on April 09, 2021, 07:40:59 AM
The rover has driven a short distance from the copter... can you spot it in this photo?   :)

(https://mars.nasa.gov/mars2020-raw-images/pub/ods/surface/sol/00048/ids/edr/browse/ncam/NLF_0048_0671209093_534ECM_N0031850NCAM00406_01_195J01_800.jpg)
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on April 10, 2021, 09:00:00 AM
Passed the spin test... flying Sunday.

(https://mars.nasa.gov/system/resources/list_images/25796_heli-movement-far-320x240.gif)

Quote
Events leading up to the first flight test begin when the Perseverance rover, which serves as a communications base station for Ingenuity, receives that day’s instructions from Earth. Those commands will have traveled from mission controllers at JPL through NASA’s Deep Space Network to a receiving antenna aboard Perseverance. Parked at “Van Zyl Overlook,” some 215 feet (65 meters) away, the rover will transmit the commands to the helicopter about an hour later.

Then, at 10:53 p.m. EDT (7:53 p.m. PDT), Ingenuity will begin undergoing its myriad preflight checks. The helicopter will repeat the blade-wiggle test it performed three sols prior. If the algorithms running the guidance, navigation, and control systems deem the test results acceptable, they will turn on the inertial measurement unit (an electronic device that measures a vehicle’s orientation and rotation) and inclinometer (which measures slopes). If everything checks out, the helicopter will again adjust the pitch of its rotor blades, configuring them so they don’t produce lift during the early portion of the spin-up.

NASA’s Ingenuity helicopter does a slow spin test of its blades, on April 8, 2021, the 48th Martian day, or sol, of the mission. This image was captured by the Navigation Cameras on NASA’s Perseverance Mars rover.
Ingenuity Begins to Spin Its Blades: NASA’s Ingenuity helicopter does a slow spin test of its blades, on April 8, 2021, the 48th Martian day, or sol, of the mission. This image was captured by the Navigation Cameras on NASA’s Perseverance Mars rover. Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ASU. Full image and caption ›
The spin-up of the rotor blades will take about 12 seconds to go from 0 to 2,537 rpm, the optimal speed for the first flight. After a final systems check, the pitch of the rotor blades will be commanded to change yet again – this time so they can dig into those few molecules of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and argon available in the atmosphere near the Martian surface. Moments later, the first experimental flight test on another planet will begin.

“It should take us about six seconds to climb to our maximum height for this first flight,” said JPL’s Håvard Grip, the flight control lead for Ingenuity. “When we hit 10 feet, Ingenuity will go into a hover that should last – if all goes well – for about 30 seconds.”

While hovering, the helicopter’s navigation camera and laser altimeter will feed information into the navigation computer to ensure Ingenuity remains not only level, but in the middle of its 33-by-33-foot (10-by-10-meter) airfield – a patch of Martian real estate chosen for its flatness and lack of obstructions. Then, the Mars Helicopter will descend and touch back down on the surface of Jezero Crater, sending data back to Earth, via Perseverance, to confirm the flight.
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on April 10, 2021, 05:24:26 PM
Weather looks good for tomorrow's flight...

https://mars.nasa.gov/mars2020/weather/
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on April 11, 2021, 08:28:41 AM
 :( Disappointed but not unexpected...

Quote
Based on data from the Ingenuity Mars helicopter that arrived late Friday night, NASA has chosen to reschedule the Ingenuity Mars Helicopter’s first experimental flight to no earlier than April 14.

During a high-speed spin test of the rotors on Friday, the command sequence controlling the test ended early due to a “watchdog” timer expiration. This occurred as it was trying to transition the flight computer from ‘Pre-Flight’ to ‘Flight’ mode. The helicopter is safe and healthy and communicated its full telemetry set to Earth.

The watchdog timer oversees the command sequence and alerts the system to any potential issues. It helps the system stay safe by not proceeding if an issue is observed and worked as planned.

The helicopter team is reviewing telemetry to diagnose and understand the issue. Following that, they will reschedule the full-speed test.
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: Charles Hunter on April 11, 2021, 09:20:50 AM
"Your connection has timed out. Please try again."
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on April 13, 2021, 07:45:05 AM
Software glitch requiring a reload... flight next week...

Quote
The Ingenuity team has identified a software solution for the command sequence issue identified on Sol 49 (April 9) during a planned high-speed spin-up test of the helicopter’s rotors. Over the weekend, the team considered and tested multiple potential solutions to this issue, concluding that minor modification and reinstallation of Ingenuity’s flight control software is the most robust path forward. This software update will modify the process by which the two flight controllers boot up, allowing the hardware and software to safely transition to the flight state. Modifications to the flight software are being independently reviewed and validated today and tomorrow in testbeds at JPL.

While the development of the new software change is straightforward, the process of validating it and completing its uplink to Ingenuity will take some time. A detailed timeline for rescheduling the high-speed spin-up test and first flight is still in process. The process of updating Ingenuity’s flight control software will follow established processes for validation with careful and deliberate steps to move the new software through the rover to the base station and then to the helicopter. Intermediate milestones include:

• Diagnose the issue and develop potential solutions
• Develop/validate and upload software
• Load flight software onto flight controllers
• Boot Ingenuity on new flight software

Once we have passed these milestones, we will prepare Ingenuity for its first flight, which will take several sols, or Mars days. Our best estimate of a targeted flight date is fluid right now, but we are working toward achieving these milestones and will set a flight date next week. We are confident in the team’s ability to work through this challenge and prepare for Ingenuity’s historic first controlled powered flight on another planet.

Ingenuity continues to be healthy on the surface on Mars. Critical functions such as power, communications, and thermal control are stable. It is not unexpected for a technology demonstration like this to encounter challenges that need to be worked in real time. The high-risk, high-reward approach we have taken to the first powered, controlled flight on another planet allows us to push the performance envelope in ways we could not with a mission designed to last for years such as Perseverance. In the meantime, while the Ingenuity team does its work, Perseverance will continue to do science with its suite of instruments and is gearing up for a test of the MOXIE technology demonstration.
 
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on April 19, 2021, 06:35:25 AM
The flight attempt happened a few hours ago... waiting for the data to see the results...
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on April 19, 2021, 06:57:18 AM
Confirmed success!!!!!  8)
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on April 19, 2021, 07:14:09 AM

https://twitter.com/thesheetztweetz/status/1384099354642829314?s=19
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on April 19, 2021, 08:28:57 AM
Ingenuity shadow selfie... freeking iconic!

(https://mars.nasa.gov/system/news_items/main_images/8923_3-PIA24584-Ingenuity's-First-Black-and-White-Heli-Shot-from-the-Air-web.jpg)

Ingenuity's First Black-and-White Image From the Air: NASA’s Ingenuity Mars Helicopter took this shot while hovering over the Martian surface on April 19, 2021, during the first instance of powered, controlled flight on another planet. It used its navigation camera, which autonomously tracks the ground during flight. Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech. Full image and caption ›
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: Charles Hunter on April 19, 2021, 10:46:46 AM
According to the NASA TV site, they will play the helicopter flight at 11:30 AM Eastern time today (Tuesday, April 19).
https://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/nasatv/#public
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on April 19, 2021, 01:03:41 PM
According to the NASA TV site, they will play the helicopter flight at 11:30 AM Eastern time today (Tuesday, April 19).
https://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/nasatv/#public

Unfortunately for NASA I suspect most people will be watching something else...
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on April 19, 2021, 03:07:48 PM

https://youtu.be/wMnOo2zcjXA
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: Charles Hunter on April 19, 2021, 03:30:23 PM
Needs Ride of the Valkyries playing behind it.

But, seriously folks, that is quite an achievement. Can't wait to see video from Ingenuity as it scouts the area.
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on April 23, 2021, 06:49:35 AM
Second flight test success!

https://mars.nasa.gov/news/8928/nasas-ingenuity-mars-helicopter-logs-second-successful-flight/

Quote
NASA’s Ingenuity helicopter successfully completed its second Mars flight on April 22 – the 18th sol, or Martian day, of its experimental flight test window. Lasting 51.9 seconds, the flight added several new challenges to the first, which took place on April 19, including a higher maximum altitude, longer duration, and sideways movement.

“So far, the engineering telemetry we have received and analyzed tell us that the flight met expectations and our prior computer modeling has been accurate,” said Bob Balaram, chief engineer for the Ingenuity Mars Helicopter at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California. “We have two flights of Mars under our belts, which means that there is still a lot to learn during this month of Ingenuity.”

For this second flight test at “Wright Brothers Field,” Ingenuity took off again at 5:33 a.m. EDT (2:33 a.m. PDT), or 12:33 p.m. local Mars time. But where Flight One topped out at 10 feet (3 meters) above the surface, Ingenuity climbed to 16 feet (5 meters) this time. After the helicopter hovered briefly, its flight control system performed a slight (5-degree) tilt, allowing some of the thrust from the counter-rotating rotors to accelerate the craft sideways for 7 feet (2 meters).

“The helicopter came to a stop, hovered in place, and made turns to point its camera in different directions,” said Håvard Grip, Ingenuity’s chief pilot at JPL. “Then it headed back to the center of the airfield to land. It sounds simple, but there are many unknowns regarding how to fly a helicopter on Mars. That’s why we’re here – to make these unknowns known.”

 Operating an aircraft in a controlled manner at Mars is far more difficult than flying one on Earth. Even though gravity on Mars is about one third that of Earth’s, the helicopter must fly with the assistance of an atmosphere with only about 1% of the density at Earth’s surface. Each second of each flight provides an abundance of Mars in-flight data for comparison to the modeling, simulations, and tests performed back here on Earth. And NASA also gains its first practical experience operating a rotorcraft remotely at Mars. These datasets will prove invaluable for potential future Mars missions that could enlist next-generation helicopters to add an aerial dimension to their explorations.

The Ingenuity Mars Helicopter project is a high-risk, high-reward technology demonstration. If Ingenuity were to encounter difficulties during its 30-sol mission, the science-gathering of NASA’s Perseverance Mars rover mission wouldn’t be impacted.

As with the first test, the Perseverance rover obtained imagery of the flight attempt from 211 feet (64.3 meters) away at “Van Zyl Overlook” using its Navcam and Mastcam-Z imagers. The initial set of data – including imagery – from the flight was received by the Ingenuity team beginning at 9:20 a.m. EDT (6:20 a.m. PDT).

“For the second flight, we tried a slightly different approach to the zoom level on one of the cameras,” said Justin Maki, Perseverance project imaging scientist and Mastcam-Z deputy principal investigator at JPL. “For the first flight, one of the cameras was fully zoomed in on the takeoff and landing zone. For the second flight we zoomed that camera out a bit for a wider field of view to capture more of the flight.”

Because the data and imagery indicate that the Mars Helicopter not only survived the second flight but also flew as anticipated, the Ingenuity team is considering how best to expand the profiles of its next flights to acquire additional aeronautical data from the first successful flight tests on another world. 
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on April 24, 2021, 07:43:40 AM
Third flight attempt is Sunday...
https://mars.nasa.gov/technology/helicopter/status/295/we-are-prepping-for-ingenuitys-third-flight-test/

First color photo from second flight...

(https://mars.nasa.gov/system/resources/detail_files/25846_PIA24593-web.jpg)

Quote
This is the first color image of the Martian surface taken by an aerial vehicle while it was aloft. The Ingenuity Mars Helicopter captured it with its color camera during its second successful flight test on April 22, 2021. At the time this image, Ingenuity was 17 feet (5.2 meters) above the surface and pitching (moving the camera’s field of view upward) so the helicopter could begin its 7-foot (2-meter) translation to the west – away from the rover. The image, as well as the inset showing a closeup of a portion of the tracks the Perseverance Mars rover and Mars surface features, demonstrates the utility of scouting Martian terrain from an aerial perspective.

The winding parallel discolorations in the surface reveal the tread of the six-wheeled rover. Perseverance itself is located top center, just out frame. “Wright Brothers Field” is in the vicinity of the helicopter’s shadow, bottom center, with the actual point of takeoff of the helicopter just below the image. A portion of the landing pads on two of the helicopter’s four landing legs can be seen in on the left and right sides of the image, and a small portion of the horizon can be seen at the upper right and left corners.

Mounted in the helicopter’s fuselage and pointed approximately 22 degree below the horizon, Ingenuity’s high-resolution color camera contains a 4208-by-3120-pixel sensor. 

Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on April 26, 2021, 07:30:37 AM
Third flight attempt is a huge success... yawn...
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on April 28, 2021, 08:33:19 AM
First ever mars rover photographed from the air...  ( upper left )

(https://cdn.mos.cms.futurecdn.net/yzhcw276vcqPunrqQkjPUe-970-80.jpg)

Quote
NASA's Mars helicopter Ingenuity captured this photo of the Perseverance rover and its tracks from the air on April 25, 2021. (This photo has been cropped so that the rover is more clearly visible.) (Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech)
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on May 02, 2021, 07:39:35 AM
Wow! The Ingenuity demo has been so successful they are extending its life into the operational supporting Perseverance as a scout...  8)

https://mars.nasa.gov/news/8936/nasas-ingenuity-helicopter-to-begin-new-demonstration-phase/

Quote
NASA’s Ingenuity Mars Helicopter has a new mission. Having proven that powered, controlled flight is possible on the Red Planet, the Ingenuity experiment will soon embark on a new operations demonstration phase, exploring how aerial scouting and other functions could benefit future exploration of Mars and other worlds.

This new phase will begin after the helicopter completes its next two flights. The decision to add an operations demonstration is a result of the Perseverance rover being ahead of schedule with the thorough checkout of all vehicle systems since its Feb 18 landing, and its science team choosing a nearby patch of crater bed for its first detailed explorations. With the Mars Helicopter’s energy, telecommunications, and in-flight navigation systems performing beyond expectation, an opportunity arose to allow the helicopter to continue exploring its capabilities with an operations demonstration, without significantly impacting rover scheduling.

“The Ingenuity technology demonstration has been a resounding success,” said Thomas Zurbuchen, associate administrator for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate. “Since Ingenuity remains in excellent health, we plan to use it to benefit future aerial platforms while prioritizing and moving forward with the Perseverance rover team’s near-term science goals.”

 The operations demonstration will begin in about two weeks with the helicopter’s sixth flight. Until then, Ingenuity will be in a transitional phase that includes its fourth and fifth forays into Mars’ crimson skies. Flight four will send the rotorcraft about 436 feet (133 meters) south to collect aerial imagery of a potential new landing zone before returning to land at Wright Brothers Field, the name for the Martian airfield on which Ingenuity’s first flight took place. This 873-foot (266-meter) roundtrip effort would surpass the range, speed, and duration marks achieved on the third flight. Ingenuity was programmed to execute a fourth flight Friday, with a takeoff to take place at 10:46 a.m. EDT (7:46 a.m. PDT, 12:30 p.m. local Mars time) and first data to be returned at 1:39 p.m. EDT (10:39 a.m. PDT). The fifth flight would send Ingenuity on a one-way mission, landing at the new site. If Ingenuity remains healthy after those flights, the next phase can begin.

Change of Course

Ingenuity’s transition from conducting a technology demonstration to an operations demonstration brings with it a new flight envelope. Along with those one-way flights, there will be more precision maneuvering, greater use of its aerial-observation capabilities, and more risk overall.

The change also means Ingenuity will require less support from the Perseverance rover team, which is looking ahead for targets to take rock and sediment samples in search of ancient microscopic life. On April 26 – the mission’s 66th sol, or Martian day – Perseverance drove 33 feet (10 meters) with the goal to identify targets.

“With the short drive, we have already begun our move south toward a location the science team believes is worthy of investigation and our first sampling,” said Ken Farley, project scientist for the Perseverance rover from Caltech in Pasadena, California. “We’ll spend the next couple of hundred sols executing our first science campaign looking for interesting rock outcrop along this 2-kilometer (1.24-mile) patch of crater floor before likely heading north and then west toward Jezero Crater’s fossil river delta.”

With short drives expected for Perseverance in the near term, Ingenuity may execute flights that land near the rover’s current location or its next anticipated parking spot. The helicopter can use these opportunities to perform aerial observations of rover science targets, potential rover routes, and inaccessible features while also capturing stereo images for digital elevation maps. The lessons learned from these efforts will provide significant benefit to future mission planners. These scouting flights are a bonus and not a requirement for Perseverance to complete its science mission.

The cadence of flights during Ingenuity’s operations demonstration phase will slow from once every few days to about once every two or three weeks, and the forays will be scheduled to avoid interfering with Perseverance’s science operations. The team will assess flight operations after 30 sols and will complete flight operations no later than the end of August. That timing will allow the rover team time to wrap up its planned science activities and prepare for solar conjunction – the period in mid-October when Mars and Earth are on opposite sides of the Sun, blocking communications.

“We have so appreciated the support provided by the Perseverance rover team during our technology demonstration phase,” said MiMi Aung, project manager of Ingenuity at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Southern California. “Now we have a chance to pay it forward, demonstrating for future robotic and even crewed missions the benefits of having a partner nearby that can provide a different perspective – one from the sky. We are going to take this opportunity and run with it – and fly with it.”

(https://mars.nasa.gov/system/resources/detail_files/25868_flt3_nav_vert-cropped.gif)
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on May 07, 2021, 07:32:26 AM
Ingenuity flight characteristics...

https://mars.nasa.gov/technology/helicopter/status/298/what-were-learning-about-ingenuitys-flight-control-and-aerodynamic-performance/

Quote
Before each of Ingenuity’s test flights, we upload instructions that describe precisely what the flight should look like. But when it comes time to fly, the helicopter is on its own and relies on a set of flight control algorithms that we developed here on Earth before Ingenuity was even launched to Mars.

To develop those algorithms, we performed detailed modeling and computer simulation in order to understand how a helicopter would behave in a Martian environment.  We followed that up with testing in a massive 25-meter-tall, 7.5-meter-diameter vacuum chamber here at JPL where we replicate the Martian atmosphere. But in all of that work, we could only approximate certain aspects of the environment. Now that Ingenuity is actually flying at Mars, we can begin to assess how things stack up against expectations. Here are some key aspects of the flight control system’s performance on Mars.

Takeoff

Unlike many consumer drones, Ingenuity is not controlled by changing the rotor speeds. Instead, we control our Mars Helicopter in the same manner as full-scale terrestrial helicopters: by changing the pitch angle of the blades, which affects the airfoil “angle of attack” and thereby determines how big a “bite” the blades take out of the air. The bigger the bite, the more lift (and drag) is produced. Like a traditional helicopter, we can change the pitch angle in two ways: by using “collective control,” which changes the blade pitch uniformly over the entire rotation of the blade, and by using “cyclic control,” which pitches the blade up on one side of the vehicle and down on the other.

When Ingenuity takes off, the rotor is already spinning at the setpoint speed of 2,537 rpm. We take off with a sudden increase in collective control on both rotors, which causes the vehicle to “boost” off the ground. During this initial takeoff phase, we limit the control system to respond only to angular rates (how quickly the helicopter rotates or tilts). The reason for this is that we don’t want the control system to be fighting against the ground, possibly resulting in undefined behavior.

The initial takeoff phase lasts for only a split second; once the helicopter has climbed a mere 5 centimeters, the system asserts full control over the helicopter’s position, velocity, and attitude. At this point we’re accelerating toward a vertical climb rate of 1 meter per second.

To estimate our movements during flight, we use a set of sensors that include a laser rangefinder (for measuring altitude) and a camera. We don’t use those sensors until we reach 1 meter altitude out of concern that they might be obscured by dust near the ground. Instead, we initially rely only on an inertial measurement unit (IMU) that measures accelerations and angular rates, and we integrate those measurements to estimate our movements. This is a type of “dead reckoning” navigation – comparable to measuring how far you’ve walked by counting your steps. It’s not very accurate in the long run, but because Ingenuity takes only a couple of seconds to reach 1 meter, we can make it work.

Ingenuity's Rotor Power During Flight Two
(https://mars.nasa.gov/system/resources/list_images/25871_Havard-1-320x240.jpg)
Ingenuity’s rotor power during Flight Two. Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech. Download image ›
One of the things we were curious about is how “confidently” Ingenuity would boost off the ground and reach that first threshold of 5 cm. Data from the first three flights shows that portion of the climb took about 0.25 seconds, which is very much in line with expectations and indicates that Ingenuity had no issue producing enough thrust on takeoff. During this initial boost, we expected to see a spike in the power required by the rotor system, and that is indeed what we observed. For example, the spike in Flight Two was about 310 watts (W) – well below the maximum capacity of our batteries, which can tolerate spikes as high as 510 W.
Ingenuity Flight Two
(https://mars.nasa.gov/system/resources/list_images/25872_PIA24594-320x240.jpg)
Ingenuity Flight Two: A picture from the navigation camera aboard Ingenuity captured the helicopter on takeoff during Flight Two, showing little sign of dust. Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech. Download image ›
After takeoff, Ingenuity took about 2 seconds to reach the 1-meter altitude where it could start using its full suite of sensors. That being said, while we did see some faint dust in the images taken by the Perseverance rover (parked nearby) on takeoff, there was no indication flying dust or sand obscured the altimeter or camera, so our design appears to have erred on the cautious side in this regard (which is a good thing).
The moment the helicopter’s legs leave the ground, its motion starts to become affected by wind. These winds can cause the vehicle to momentarily roll (side to side) or pitch (forward or backward) on takeoff, until it has time to catch and correct itself. We were prepared for some significant roll/pitch angles on takeoff if winds were high at the ground level, but in Ingenuity’s three takeoffs so far, they have been limited to a couple of degrees only, making for nice, vertical takeoffs.

Hover

Ingenuity's Horizontal Position During Flight One Hover
(https://mars.nasa.gov/system/resources/list_images/25873_Havard-3-320x240.jpg)
Ingenuity’s horizontal position relative to start during Flight One hover. Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech. Download image ›
During hover phases of flight, we are attempting to maintain a constant altitude, heading, and position. In evaluating how well we are managing to achieve that, we are forced, for the most part, to rely on Ingenuity’s own estimates of what it was doing, as we have limited data establishing “ground truth.” Those estimates are subject to errors in navigation that will be covered in a separate post. But the steadiness of these estimates tells us a lot about how tightly the controller is able to hold the desired values.
The data shows that we hold our altitude extremely well in hover, to within approximately 1 cm. We also hold the heading (which way we point) to within less than 1.5 degrees. For horizontal position, we’ve seen variations up to approximately 25 cm. Such variations are expected as the result of wind gusts.

So, what has the wind been like during our flights? Fortunately for us, the Perseverance rover carries the MEDA weather station. For Flight One, we have measurements from MEDA indicating winds of 4-6 meters per second from the east and southeast during most of the flight, gusting to 8 meters per second. Keep in mind that those measurements are made 1.5 meters above ground level, and the tendency is for winds to increase as you go from ground level up. We also have atmospheric density measurements at the time of Flight One, showing 0.0165 kilograms per cubic meter, or about 1.3% of Earth’s density at sea level. Using this information, we can assess the system’s performance in another important respect – namely, the control effort required to fly.

Ingenuity's Collective Control During Flight One
(https://mars.nasa.gov/system/resources/list_images/25874_Havard-4-320x240.jpg)
Ingenuity’s collective control during Flight One. Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech. Download image ›
For the collective control (remember, that is the one that changes rotor blade pitch angle uniformly to affect helicopter’s thrust), we would like to see hover values roughly consistent with prior expectations. During Flight One, we hovered with around 9.2 degrees collective on the lower rotor and 8.2-degree collective on the upper (that’s the angle of the blade’s “chord line” – an imaginary line drawn from the leading edge to the trailing edge of the rotor blade – at ¾ of the rotor radius). Those values are 0.7-0.8 degrees lower than the trim values we anticipated (9.0 degree on the upper rotor and 9.9 degree on the lower rotor). But those trim values were tuned based on tests without wind at a somewhat different density/rotor speed combination, so this difference is not unexpected. Another indication that we are within our aerodynamic comfort zone is the electrical rotor power of around 210 W in hover, which is also right in the vicinity of what was expected. Taken together, the results indicate that we have good margin against “aerodynamic stall,” which is when the blade airfoil’s angle relative to the surrounding airflow is increased beyond the point where it can produce further increases in lift.
Ingenuity's Lower Cyclic Control on Flight One
(https://mars.nasa.gov/system/resources/list_images/25876_Havard-5-320x240.jpg)
Ingenuity’s lower cyclic control on Flight One. Similar cyclic controls applied on the upper rotor. Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech. Download image ›
We also evaluate the cyclic control, which is used to create roll and pitch moments on the vehicle. We have seen relatively steady values in hover, generally of magnitude less than 3 degrees, which leaves ample margin against the upper limit of 10 degrees. The cyclic control inputs tell us a fair amount about the wind that the vehicle has to fight against. For example, for Flight One the cyclic control is consistent with winds from the east and southeast, which is in alignment with MEDA observations. The cyclic control effort also increases with altitude, which indicates that winds are getting higher further from the ground.
Landing

Landing is a particularly challenging part of any flight. Ingenuity lands by flying directly toward the ground and detecting when touchdown happens, but a number of events occur in rapid succession leading to touchdown. First, a steady descent rate of 1 meter per second is established. Then, once the vehicle estimates that the legs are within 1 meter of the ground, the algorithms stop using the navigation camera and altimeter for estimation, relying on the IMU in the same way as on takeoff. As with takeoff, this avoids dust obscuration, but it also serves another purpose -- by relying only on the IMU, we expect to have a very smooth and continuous estimate of our vertical velocity, which is important in order to avoid detecting touchdown prematurely.

About half a second after the switch to IMU-only, when the legs are estimated to be within 0.5 meters of the ground, the touchdown detection is armed. Ingenuity will now consider touchdown to have occurred as soon as the descent velocity drops by 25 centimeters per second or more. Once Ingenuity meets the ground, that drop in descent velocity happens rapidly. At that point, the flight control system stops trying to control the motion of the helicopter and commands the collective control to the lowest possible blade pitch in order to produce close to zero thrust. The system then waits 3 seconds to ensure the helicopter has settled on the ground before spinning down the rotors.

People have asked why we contact the ground at the relatively high speed of 1 meter per second. There are multiple reasons for this. First, it reduces the dead-reckoning time that we need to spend without using the camera and altimeter; second, it reduces the time spent in “ground effect,” where the vehicle dynamics are less well-characterized; and third, it makes it easier to detect that we’ve touched down (because the velocity change is clearly sufficient for detection). What makes this strategy possible is the landing gear design which helps prevent the vehicle from bouncing on landing.

Ingenuity's Estimate of Vertical Velocity During Flight Two
(https://mars.nasa.gov/system/resources/list_images/25875_Havard-6-320x240.jpg)
Ingenuity’s estimate of vertical velocity during Flight Two. Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech. Download image ›
Any touchdown detection algorithm of this kind has to strike a balance between two potential pitfalls: (1) detecting touchdown too early (thereby dropping to the ground from the air) and (2) not detecting touchdown soon enough (which would cause the helicopter to keep trying to fly after coming in contact with the ground). Data from Ingenuity’s flights on Mars show that we were not in danger of either of these scenarios. During descent, Ingenuity has maintained its vertical velocity to within approximately 4 cm per second, and it has detected the necessary 25 cm per second drop within approximately 30 milliseconds of touchdown.
As we continue with our flights on Mars, we will keep digging deeper into the data to understand the various subtleties that may exist and would be useful in the design of future aerial explorers. But what we can already say is: Ingenuity has met or exceeded our flight performance expectations. 
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on May 09, 2021, 08:07:43 AM
NASA’s Ingenuity Mars Helicopter completed its fifth flight on the Red Planet today with its first one-way journey from Wright Brothers Field to an airfield 423 feet (129 meters) to the south. After arrival above its new airfield, Ingenuity climbed to an altitude record of 33 feet (10 meters) and captured high-resolution color images of its new neighborhood before touching down...

https://mars.nasa.gov/news/8942/nasas-ingenuity-mars-helicopter-completes-first-one-way-trip/
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: Tacachale on May 09, 2021, 08:55:41 AM
Ok, that’s rad.
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: Charles Hunter on May 09, 2021, 01:49:42 PM
Very cool.  Wonder what they are going to name the new airfield.
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on May 23, 2021, 07:28:12 AM
The Chinese rover has driven off the lander to the Martian surface...

https://www.space.com/china-mars-rover-zhurong-rolls-on-martian-surface
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on May 28, 2021, 08:28:18 AM
Ingenuity 6th flight encounters in-flight anomalies but manages to land safely.   Details here...

https://mars.nasa.gov/technology/helicopter/status/305/surviving-an-in-flight-anomaly-what-happened-on-ingenuitys-sixth-flight/
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on June 05, 2021, 07:17:53 AM
Flight 7 this weekend...

https://mars.nasa.gov/technology/helicopter/status/306/ingenuity-flight-7-preview/
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on June 30, 2021, 07:24:24 AM
Ingenuity has now completed 8 flights and will likely fly many more...

https://www.space.com/mars-helicopter-ingenuity-keep-flying-months
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: Jason on June 30, 2021, 12:45:40 PM
The little chopper that could!
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on July 03, 2021, 08:02:20 AM
The biggest by far test yet...

https://mars.nasa.gov/technology/helicopter/status/313/were-going-big-for-flight-9/

Quote
STATUS UPDATES | July 02, 2021
We’re Going Big for Flight 9
Written by Håvard Grip, Chief Pilot & Bob Balaram, Chief Engineer for the Mars Helicopter Project at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory

Since Ingenuity’s historic first flight on April 19, where it hovered about 10 feet (3 meters) above the Martian surface for 30 seconds, we have been progressively stretching the capabilities of the helicopter by flying farther, faster, and more aggressively. Ingenuity has flown at altitudes up to 33 feet (10 meters) and ground speeds up to 13 feet (4 meters) a second. It covered a distance of 873 feet (266 meters) on Flight 4, and stayed in the air for 139.9 seconds on Flight 6. It has navigated between five different airfields, three of which were identified based on satellite imagery only. It has even survived an in-flight anomaly while still landing within about 16 feet (5 meters) of its intended target.

In doing all of those things, Ingenuity has already exceeded our expectations. But on Flight 9 we are taking things to a new level with a high-speed flight across unfriendly terrain, which will take us far away from the rover.

Perseverance is currently at the eastern edge of a scientifically interesting region called “Séítah,” which is characterized by sandy ripples that could be very challenging terrain for wheeled vehicles like the rover. Ingenuity’s last two flights have been designed to keep up with the rover on this journey.

Rather than continuing to skip ahead of the rover, however, we will now attempt to do something that only an aerial vehicle at Mars could accomplish – take a shortcut straight across a portion of the Séítah region and land on a plain to the south. On the way, we plan to take color aerial images of the rocks and ripples that we pass over.

To accomplish this feat, we will break our own records for distance, time aloft, and groundspeed. Ingenuity will be instructed to fly 2,051 feet (625 meters) at 5 meters (16 feet) per second and remain airborne for approximately 167 seconds. This max effort will also challenge Ingenuity’s navigation algorithm in a fundamentally new way. This onboard algorithm which lets Ingenuity determine where it is along the flight path, was designed for a comparatively simple technology demonstration over flat terrain and does not have the design features to accommodate high slopes and undulations that are to be found in Séítah. The undulations can cause oscillations of a few meters in the altitude control of the helicopter but Ingenuity flies sufficiently high above the terrain that this will not be a problem.

However, these slopes and abrupt changes in the slope path can also cause significant heading deviations as the slanted ground images taken by the camera are interpreted onboard using a flat-ground assumption. There is the distinct possibility that the cumulative effect of this is a large lateral error at the destination landing site, with delivery errors of many tens of feet (or meters). We have taken mitigation steps to minimize this by flying slower over the challenging sections we encounter in the early portions of the flight to reduce the down-track errors from a large initial heading error.

Nevertheless, even though the final destination is centered in a good 164-foot-radius (50-meter-radius) patch of clear ground, it is possible that we will end up landing on a more treacherous, higher-relief surface than the relatively benign, sandy patches we have been able to pick so far. And it will stretch the capabilities of the helicopter’s telecom system, which was designed for line-of-sight communication over distances of a few hundred meters. All of this amounts to a significantly elevated risk, and it is safe to say that it will be the most nerve-wracking flight since Flight 1.

So why are we willing to take that risk? First, we believe Ingenuity is ready for the challenge, based on the resilience and robustness demonstrated in our flights so far. Second, this high-risk, high-reward attempt fits perfectly within the goals of our current operational demonstration phase. A successful flight would be a powerful demonstration of the capability that an aerial vehicle (and only an aerial vehicle) can bring to bear in the context of Mars exploration – traveling quickly across otherwise untraversable terrain while scouting for interesting science targets. A successful Flight 9 will also provide the rover science team with close-up images of the Séítah terrain that they will otherwise be unable to acquire.

Flight 9 is expected to occur no earlier than late the night of Sunday, July 4, with data coming down in the following days. Stay tuned to see how Ingenuity handles its biggest challenge yet.

Theodore Roosevelt said: “Far better is it to dare mighty things, to win glorious triumphs, even though checkered by failure...than to rank with those poor spirits who neither enjoy nor suffer much, because they live in a gray twilight that knows not victory nor defeat.”  That is the basis of the JPL motto to “dare mighty things,” and we will get a chance to live that on Flight 9.  Wish us good luck.

Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on July 07, 2021, 08:15:51 AM
Nearly a mile driven... I think they are still learning how to drive...

https://mars.nasa.gov/mars2020/mission/where-is-the-rover/

(https://mars.nasa.gov/mars2020-raw-images/pub/ods/surface/sol/00134/ids/edr/browse/zcam/ZL0_0134_0678851452_029EBY_N0050894ZCAM08137_1100LMJ01_800.jpg)

(https://mars.nasa.gov/mars2020-raw-images/pub/ods/surface/sol/00128/ids/edr/browse/zcam/ZL0_0128_0678318200_318EBY_N0041878ZCAM08129_1100LMJ01_1200.jpg)

Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on July 07, 2021, 08:20:54 AM
Ninth flight successful...

https://www.space.com/mars-helicopter-ingenuity-9th-flight-video
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on July 08, 2021, 08:24:15 AM
Description of flight nine...

https://mars.nasa.gov/technology/helicopter/status/314/flight-9-was-a-nail-biter-but-ingenuity-came-through-with-flying-colors/

(https://mars.nasa.gov//system/resources/detail_files/26035_Map-of-Ingenuitys-Ninth-Flight-Path.jpg)
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: Charles Hunter on July 08, 2021, 09:43:16 AM
Fascinating and ingenious.
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on July 14, 2021, 06:58:08 AM
https://mars.nasa.gov/news/8987/nasas-mars-helicopter-reveals-intriguing-terrain-for-rover-team/
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on July 15, 2021, 01:11:34 PM
https://mars.nasa.gov/mars2020/mission/where-is-the-rover/
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on July 22, 2021, 06:53:34 AM
(https://mars.nasa.gov/system/resources/detail_files/26059_PIA24745-web.jpg)


Quote
This wide view of Mars’ Jezero Crater was taken by NASA’s Perseverance rover on July 15, 2021 (the 143rd sol, or Martian day, of its mission). The rover has driven nearly a mile (1.5 kilometers) south of its landing site, “Octavia E. Butler Landing,” into a region the team has nicknamed the “Crater Floor Fractured Rough” unit. The stones that appear light-colored and flat in this image are informally referred to as the “paver rocks” and will be the first type from which Perseverance will collect a sample for planned return to Earth by subsequent missions. Small hills to the south of the rover and the sloping inner walls of the Jezero Crater rim fill the distant background of this view.
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on July 23, 2021, 07:27:21 AM
Ingenuity will try for a tenth flight this weekend...

https://www.space.com/mars-helicopter-ingenuity-10th-flight-preview
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on July 26, 2021, 07:10:08 AM
Another successful flight... link contains video and description of the flight...

https://www.space.com/mars-helicopter-ingenuity-completes-first-mile-10th-flight

(https://cdn.mos.cms.futurecdn.net/NmP5AxX6SKff37DGCCMH2N-970-80.jpg)
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on August 12, 2021, 07:08:17 AM
Eleventh flight was mainly a reposition...

https://mars.nasa.gov/news/9012/nasas-ingenuity-mars-helicopter-spots-perseverance-from-above/

Can you find Perseverance?

(https://mars.nasa.gov/internal_resources/1100/)
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on August 17, 2021, 08:17:50 AM
Preparing for flight 12...

(https://mars.nasa.gov/images/mepjpl/PIA24797-Flight12.jpg)

Quote
This annotated image depicts the ground tracks of NASA’s Perseverance rover (white) and Ingenuity Mars Helicopter (green) since arriving on Mars on Feb. 18, 2021. The upper yellow ellipse depicts the “South Séítah” region, which Ingenuity is scheduled to fly over during its 12th sortie. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Flight plan details...

https://mars.nasa.gov/technology/helicopter/status/321/better-by-the-dozen-ingenuity-takes-on-flight-12/
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on August 18, 2021, 06:45:55 AM
Flight 12 completed successfully...

https://www.space.com/mars-helicopter-ingenuity-12th-flight-success
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on September 05, 2021, 08:55:26 AM
Ingenuity preps for flight 13...

https://mars.nasa.gov/technology/helicopter/status/329/lucky-13-ingenuity-to-get-lower-for-more-detailed-images-during-next-flight/
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on September 08, 2021, 06:56:36 AM
"Ginny" completes flight 13...

https://www.space.com/mars-helicopter-ingenuity-13th-flight
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: Snaketoz on September 09, 2021, 09:36:13 PM
14,000 Posts!  Do you ever rest?  Congrats...
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on September 10, 2021, 06:54:44 AM
14,000 Posts!  Do you ever rest?  Congrats...

Lol... never even noticed. I have been here a long time...
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on September 16, 2021, 07:54:17 AM
Flying on Mars is getting tougher...

https://mars.nasa.gov/technology/helicopter/status/334/flying-on-mars-is-getting-harder-and-harder/

Quote
In the months since we flew for the first time, we have learned a great deal about operating a helicopter on Mars. We have explored Ingenuity’s strengths and limitations in detail, leveraging the former and working around the latter to operationalize it as a highly capable reconnaissance platform.

With the benefit of the knowledge acquired, conducting flights on Mars has in most ways become easier than it was at the outset. But in one important way it is actually getting more difficult every day: I’m talking about the atmospheric density, which was already extremely low and is now dropping further due to seasonal variations on Mars.

When we designed and tested Ingenuity on Earth, we expected Ingenuity’s five-flight mission to be completed within the first few months after Perseverance’s landing in February 2021. We therefore prepared for flights at atmospheric densities between 0.0145 and 0.0185 kg/m3, which is equivalent to 1.2-1.5% of Earth’s atmospheric density at sea level. With Ingenuity in its sixth month of operation, however, we have entered a season where the densities in Jezero Crater are dropping to even lower levels. In the coming months we may see densities as low as 0.012 kg/m3 (1.0% of Earth’s density) during the afternoon hours that are preferable for flight.

The difference may seem small, but it has a significant impact on Ingenuity’s ability to fly. At our lower design limit for atmospheric density (0.0145 kg/m3), we know that Ingenuity has a thrust margin of at least 30%. Thrust margin refers to the excess thrust that Ingenuity can produce above and beyond what is required to hover. That additional thrust is needed on takeoffs and climbs, during maneuvers, and also when tracking terrain with varying height. But if the atmospheric density were to drop to 0.012 kg/m3 in the coming months, our helicopter’s thrust margin could drop to as low as 8%, which means that Ingenuity would be operating close to aerodynamic stall (a condition where further increases in the blade’s angle of attack does not produce more lift, only more drag).

Thankfully, there is a way to tackle this issue – but it involves spinning the rotors even faster than we have been doing up to now. In fact, they will have to spin faster than we have ever attempted with Ingenuity or any of our test helicopters on Earth. This is not something we take lightly, which is why our next operations on Mars will be focused on carefully testing out higher rotor speeds in preparation for future flights.

We will begin by performing a high-speed spin of the rotor without leaving the ground, reaching a peak rotor speed of 2,800 rpm (more than a 10% increase relative to our prior Mars experience of 2,537 rpm). If all goes well, we will follow this with a short test flight at a slightly lower rotor speed of 2,700 rpm. This would be our 14th flight and (hopefully) a relatively boring one compared to any of our more recent flights, where we flew long distances to acquire images of interest for the Perseverance rover team. Occurring no earlier than Friday, Sept. 17 (with data coming down no earlier than Saturday morning), the short hop would have Ingenuity take off, climb to 16 feet (5 meters), perform a small translation (sideways move), and then land again. And while the results from a Flight 14 should be less than riveting, the significant increase in available rpms (from 2,537 to 2,700) for future helicopter operations will provide us the option to perform scouting missions for Perseverance at lower atmospheric densities. It also leaves some wiggle room if we decide an additional rpm increase is needed later.

A speed increase like this comes with a number of potential issues. One of these has to do with aerodynamics: A rotor speed of 2,800 rpm, in combination with wind and helicopter motion, could cause the tips of the rotor blades to encounter the air at nearly 0.8 Mach – that is, 80% of the speed of sound on Mars. (The speed of sound on Mars is somewhat lower than we are used to – about ¾ the speed of sound on Earth.) If the blade tips get sufficiently close to the speed of sound, they will experience a very large increase in aerodynamic drag that would be prohibitive for flight. For Ingenuity’s rotor we do not expect to encounter this phenomenon until even higher Mach numbers, but this has never been confirmed in testing on Earth.

Another potential issue is unknown resonances in the helicopter structure. Like all mechanical systems, Ingenuity has resonances that can lead to large vibrations when excited at particular frequencies. It is important to ensure that there are no significant resonances at the rotor speed used for flight, as this could cause damage to hardware and lead to a deterioration in sensor readings needed by the flight control system.

Additional demands will also be put on several components of Ingenuity’s design: The motors will need to spin faster, the electrical system will need to deliver more power, and the entire rotor system will need to withstand the higher loads that come with increased rotor speeds. It all adds up to a significant challenge, but by approaching the issue slowly and methodically, we hope to fully check out the system at higher rotor speeds and enable Ingenuity to keep flying in the months ahead. Stay tuned for updates.
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on September 29, 2021, 07:17:56 AM
Mars and earth are in solar conjunction precluding communications with the rover for a few weeks. This happens every two years.
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on November 02, 2021, 04:46:15 PM
Perseverance is up to flight 14... pretty cool talk about autonomous driving on Mars...

https://mars.nasa.gov/mars2020/mission/status/342/driving-farther-and-faster-with-autonomous-navigation-and-helicopter-scouting/

Quote
We’ve been driving on Mars since 1997, beginning with the 83 sol Sojourner rover mission. Since 2003 with the arrival of the Spirit and Opportunity rovers, followed by the Curiosity rover in 2012 and Perseverance rover in 2021 we have been continuously exploring the surface of Mars. The Perseverance mobility system was designed to enable faster and more precise autonomous driving than any prior mission. It has wheels optimized for rugged terrain, cameras with fast exposure times, wide navigation camera “Navcam” field of view, and a dedicated second computer and Field Gate Programmable Array “FPGA” for fast image processing. Visual Odometry, “VO”, tracks the motion of features in images as it is driving to provide accurate position estimates and measure slip. “Thinking-While-Driving” capability allows Perseverance to continuously drive while performing VO, generating a map of terrain geometry, and autonomously blending drive arcs and selecting a safe and efficient drive path.

An example of how Autonav helps is the drive to the area called “Citadelle” where the rover collected its first rock samples. From where Perseverance was positioned on Aug. 20, 2021 (Sol 178), it needed to drive about 84 meters upslope crossing a narrow gap in a hazardous ridge toward the end to get to Citadelle. Images from the rover Navcams did not cover the gap. Images from Mars orbiters are valuable for strategic route planning, but not all rover hazards can be identified in them. Using AutoNav, Perseverance was able to drive all the way to the gap and autonomously find a safe path through the gap in a single drive.

While Perseverance was conducting the sampling campaign at Citadelle, Ingenuity was performing flights over the rover's next potential sampling location in southern Séítah from an altitude of about 10m off the surface. Using the Ingenuity Return to Earth “RTE” camera images from Flight #12, the operations team was able to confirm the traversability of the planned strategic route into the area. On Sept. 12, 2021 (Sol 200) Perseverance drove 175.15m in a single sol setting up for the entry into Séítah after going as far as time available for driving would allow. After an 8m segment to build the initial terrain map, the remainder 167m of the drive used AutoNav – the farthest any of our Mars rovers have driven autonomously in a single sol.

AutoNav and helicopter scouting are helping Perseverance navigate efficiently between regions of interest and focus more time on science campaigns. The road ahead Is looking pretty exciting as we explore the full range of Perseverance and Ingenuity capabilities.

 
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on November 13, 2021, 08:12:50 AM
https://mars.nasa.gov/mars2020/mission/status/345/mars-or-arrakis/

Quote
Mars – or Arrakis?
Written by Erin Gibbons, Student Collaborator at McGill University

Who hates deep sand traps more than golfers?

Mars rover drivers (and probably Fremen too).

When your vehicle is well over 50 million kilometers away from the nearest tow company, getting your wheels stuck in sand can be a mission-critical problem. Such a predicament ended the Spirit rover’s mission in 2009.

Yet Perseverance is currently winding her way through the maze of towering sand dunes that characterize the Séítah region of Jezero crater (“Séítah” means "amidst the sand" in the Navajo language, a well-fitting name). A recent photo beamed back from the HiRISE camera (High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter shows the extent to which the nearby dunes dwarf the rover, which itself is the size of a small SUV.

What enticed the Science Team into this treacherous zone laden with sand traps? The answer lies in our observations. After Perseverance landed and turned her eyes (cameras) towards Séítah, the Science Team was treated to a compelling view of diversely layered rocks. We saw thin layers and thick layers, planar layers and tilted layers, featureless layers and layers with protrusions. These observations garnered excitement amongst us because we know, from studying Earth, that an outcrop of layered rocks serves as a geological time-line. Each layer records information about the environmental conditions present when the rock formed and changes in layer thicknesses or textural expressions indicates an environmental change. Further, by studying the directions that the layers tilted, we determined that the rocks of Séítah are likely the most ancient rocks exposed in all of Jezero crater. Séítah therefore represents the beginning of the accessible geologic record and offers a once-in-a-mission opportunity to explore the full breadth of landscape evolution.

However, from a distance, it is difficult to determine what that evolving landscape actually looked like. Numerous hypotheses have been proposed for the origin of the layered rocks in Séítah, including sedimentation in an ancient lake or river with varying flow energy, airfall of volcanic ash, airfall of material dislodged by an impact event, cooled lava flows, or a magmatic intrusion. Each one of these possibilities carries with it a (very) different interpretation of how habitable Jezero crater was in the deep past and deciphering which scenario is most correct requires a closer look.
(https://mars.nasa.gov/images/mepjpl/NLF_0248_0688961170_web.jpg)

Which is why we braved the sand. As of this writing, the rover is parked in front of one of the captivating layered rocks that we spied from a distance, informally named Brac. On sol 253 (November 5th, 2021, Earth time) Perseverance reached out and used the abrader drill bit and the Gaseous Dust Removal Tool to scrape a few millimeters of rock off the surface of Brac to expose the fresh, un-weathered surface for study. The Science Team is currently poring over the images and planning follow up analyses that will bring us one step closer to unraveling how these rocks formed and whether that environment could have been favourable for life.   
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on November 13, 2021, 08:16:08 AM
Click link for interactive map of Perseverance travels and helicopter Ingenuity location...

https://mars.nasa.gov/mars2020/mission/where-is-the-rover/
Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on November 21, 2021, 08:26:55 AM
Ingenuity 13th flight recorded from Perseverance...

https://www.youtube.com/v/qpqhYEkudvw

Title: Re: Perseverance Mars Rover
Post by: BridgeTroll on December 08, 2021, 07:01:30 AM
Flight 17 completed...

https://mars.nasa.gov/technology/helicopter/status/350/flight-17-discovering-limits/