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Author Topic: Greeks and Minorcans. Mid century 1700's Jacksonville History.  (Read 2939 times)

stephendare

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Minorcan Man.


This Turnbull fellow was quite an asshole, even by Scottish Standards.  Here is a portrait:


An interesting thing about the Greeks and mediterranean people.  Because of the prevailing phrenological and racial theory of the time, they were considered my better able to actually work in the sub tropics than the northern european landowners.

There is a whole movement around this time to import Italians particularly to do the work.  They were considered both more morally justified to bring into indentured servitude and on the whole, cheaper than Slaves.

The Italians are aware of this general theory at the time, but obviously some of them decided that it provided a better opportunity.

So Turnbull ended up getting Greeks.

Corsica, which is the island Napoleon Boanaparte is from was actually a Greek Colony that just decided to go native.  Historically, Corsicans are the closest examples of what the ancient island greeks looked like.

You can almost imagine the scene when Turnbull finds out that the Greeks have been hanging out with the Minorcans long enough to get 'friendly' with each other.   Still this fool decided the more the merrier.

Things came to a breaking point when he began employing his African slaves to administer whippings to the greek and minorcan workers.  Even the English were shocked into action.

http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~pudig/Minorcans.html
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The Minorcans in Florida

The Peace of Paris in 1763 gave Florida to the British.  When the British entered Florida they found it depopulated.  To promote settlement the Proclamation of 1763 offered easy terms to prospective settlers who desired land grants.  A Scottish physician, Dr. Andrew Turnbull, siezed this opportunity.  Realizing that citizens from the British Isles might have difficulty with the heat and humidity in Florida he resolved to use Greeks, who were accustomed to such conditions and knew how to cultivate olives, cotton, madder, and tobacco, as settlers.  He had experience with the Greeks as his wife was Greek.  He received large grants of land near the Ponce de Leon Inlet (near present day Daytona).  His plans called for 500 Greek settles to cultivate crops that would thrive in the Florida climate.  He called his colony New Smyrna after the birth place of his wife.

Turnbull arrived at the port of Mahón on Minorca in June 1767.  This was the perfect base for his operations.  The island was owned by the British and the harbor of the port Mahón was deep and well sheltered.  His original intention was to go to Greece to enlist immigrants, but he postponed his trip and instead went to Leghorn, Italy where he heard there were some Italians willing to immigrate to British East Florida.  The Italians who signed on with Turnbull, all male, were transported to Minorca.  In July Turnbull departed for the Levant.  While he was on his voyage, his agents found a number of Greeks on the island of Corsica who were willing to join his venture.  His recruiting efforts in Greece were much more difficult.  Eventually about 200 Greeks from among the peoples of Mani in the Peloponnesos, and a handful of Greeks from a variety of other locations were recruited.  Turnbull returned to Mahón in February only to find that many of the Itallians had married Minorcan women.  An additional group of about one thousand Minorcans persuaded Dr. Turnbull to accept them as colonists.  On 17 April 1768 Turnbull left Minorca with eight ships carrying 1403 colonists, almost three times more than his original plan.

The colony ran into problems almost immediately.  A ship carrying supplies to the colony was shipwrecked before it reached the colony.  148 of the colonists died during the voyage from Minorca to New Smyrna.  When the colonists finally reached the colony they were met by mangrove swamps.  The land had not been cleared, and food was scarce.  The swamps had to be cleared and shelter built for the colonists.  Although there was an abundance of food in the area the colonists weren't allowed the time to gather, hunt, or fish.  The alligators and indians also kept the colonists close to the colony.  Worse were the mosquitoes, which brought malaria to the colony. 

These conditions led to a minor revolt by about 300 colonists.  They rioted, siezed a ship, and sailed south.  A British frigate captured the escapees and brought them to St. Augustine.  Two of the rebels were executed and the rest were returned to the colony.  Life at the colony continued to be difficult.  The work was hard, the food continued to be scarce, and malaria was rampant.  In the first year of its existence an additional 450 colonists died.

Life remained hard in the colony.  The colonists who were deemed not to be working to their capacity were beaten, confined in stocks, or chained to heavy iron balls.  Some colonists were chained to logs in the fields to continue their work. Turnbull used his overseers to enforce his judgements, and often they exceeded their master in severity.  In spite of this the New Smyrna was the most profitable indigo plantation in North America.

All the colonists had signed letters of indenture with Turnbull.  They would work for a set number of years. At the end of that time they would be released from the indenture and Turnbull would give them a small plot of land for their own.  The more skilled such as blacksmiths and carpenters had shorter terms of indenture.  As the terms of indenture ended for the more skilled of the colonists they approached Turnbull for their discharge and land.  Invariably they were imprisoned and forced to sign new indentures.  Eventually the colonists were afraid to ask for their discharge.

In 1777 a group of Englishmen from St. Augustine came to New Smyrna to examine the colony. A young boy overheard these gentlemen say that if the colonists knew their rights they would not suffer the slavery in which they found themselves. The boy told his mother, who discussed the matter with other colonists. They decided to see what they could do. On 25 March 1777 three of the men got permission to go to the coast to hunt for turtles. They were granted permission and went to the coast, but they turned north and went to St. Augustine where they sought a audience with Governor Tonyn asking for justice as their terms of indenture had expired. Governor Tonyn promised to protect their rights. A number of factors came into play; the conditions at New Smyrna, the need for men to protect Florida because of the outbreak of the American Revolution, and antagonism between Tonyn and Turnbull, led Governor Tonyn to liberate the New Smyrna colonists. During May and June of 1777 most of the colonists migrated to St. Augustine and by 17 July 1777 Turnbull's attorneys had set all the colonists free. In its ten years of existance 964 colonists died at New Smyrna.



http://www.nps.gov/foma/historyculture/menorcans.htm
The Greeks and Minorcans settled here on Charlotte Street in St. Augustine
« Last Edit: August 18, 2009, 03:09:21 PM by stephendare »
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stephendare

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Re: Greeks and Minorcans. Mid century 1700's Jacksonville History.
« Reply #1 on: August 18, 2009, 02:53:24 PM »
http://www.maureen-ortagus.com/greek-landing-day/
Quote
On June 26, 1768, more than 1,400 Greeks, Minorcans and Corsicans arrived in Britain’s East Florida colony and registered in St. Augustine to work as indentured servants on an indigo plantation located near present-day New Smyrna. After nine years of mistreatment by their overseers in the harsh Florida wilderness, the surviving colonists came to St. Augustine, where their names and culture were forever woven into the fabric of the Oldest City.

June 26: Bishop Dimitrios, assisted by Father Grigorios Tatsis, offered the invocation, and Mayor Joseph Boles read the 2008 Proclamation in the courtyard of St. Photios Greek Orthodox National Shrine on 41 St. George St.

Connie Pitenis read her 2007 award-winning St. Photios Essay, titled “Father Pedro Camps, Spiritual Leader of the Colonists.”

The heritage walk proceeded from the City Gate down St. George Street to the Cathedral-Basilica, where, at the base of the statue of Father Camps, the ships’ manifests were read and the immigrants of 1768 were memorialized.

Bishop Dimitrios is executive director of the shrine. He is celebrating his 25th anniversary to the priesthood. His ordination took place on the stage at the Florida School for the Deaf and the Blind.
And now abide faith, hope and love; these three, but the greatest of these is love

stephendare

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Re: Greeks and Minorcans. Mid century 1700's Jacksonville History.
« Reply #2 on: August 18, 2009, 03:18:27 PM »
http://stjohnthedivine.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=74&Itemid=109

The history of this parish dates back to the first Greek immigrants who arrived in the Jacksonville area at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century. They began arriving in significant numbers from approximately 1905 onward until the immigration laws became restrictive in the late 1920's.
 

The earliest records of Greek Orthodox services in Jacksonville can be traced to 1907, when a Fr. Arsenios is mentioned as the first clergyman to officiate here.   

From time to time, services were held whenever a clergyman was available, but a permanent parish organization did not come to pass until 1918.  At that time, the community was organized and incorporated and its first priest was Fr.  Michael Sarris.  In 1916, a home had been purchased and converted into the first Greek Orthodox Church of Jacksonville.  The "godfather", so to speak, of our church was the Very Rev.  Parthenios Kolonis from Patmos, Greece, and had bestowed the name of St. John the Divine on our parish (Originally named The Church of the Revelation of St. John the Divine).  On April 17, 1919, the community purchased a larger church facility in the downtown area from the Christian Science Congregation.  This building, for the next 39 years would see innumerable weddings, baptisms, funerals, and visits, by many high ranking clergymen.  As far as can be determined, the consecration of this church was in the early to mid-1920's by the late Archbishop Alexander.
 
St. John the Divine is the third oldest parish in the state of Florida, being superseded only by Tarpon Springs and Pensacola.  At one time the parish lines of St. John the Divine extended from Tallahassee, on the west, to Valdosta, Georgia, Thomasville, Georgia and Waycross, Georgia, on the north, to Titusville, Florida, in the South.  Therefore, such parishes as Tallahassee, Gainesville, Daytona Beach, St. Augustine and others are extensions of our community.  Worthy to mention, is to say, that the ground work for St. Photios National Greek Orthodox Shrine in St. Augustine also came from our parish.

The prosperity of the 1940's was overshadowed by the anguish and turmoil of World War II, as many of our young men served in the war from 1941 to 1945. The service flag of the period fortunately bears but one gold star, representing one parishioner killed in the war.



In 1944, came the realization that the old facilities were inadequate for the needs, and the first building fund committee was started by Mr. Nick J. Pappas, President of  the Greek Community.  The original purpose of the building fund organization was to build a church hall, and only gradually did the vision evolve for a whole new church complex.  In 1947, the first American-born priest arrived in the community, Fr. Anastasios Bandy.  Later, Fr. E. B. Papazisis arrived to begin one of the longest tenure of any priest in the parish.

The present church property was purchased in 1959. The parish shared the common goal of building an edifice reflecting the beauty of Orthodox worship.

Ground-breaking day was May 1, 1966, with Agiasmo Services conducted by His Grace, Bishop Amilianos, assisted by Fr.  Frank Kirlangitis, pastor of the congregation and Fr. E.B. Papazisis, retired priest.  It is to be noted that Bishop Aimilianos had served our parish as priest in 1929 and this made the occasion more fitting. Gus Roman was the Chanter.  Gus Roman, Mrs. Angela Marmaras and John Louros spaded the first breaking of ground for the new building.
 
Construction began on July 14, 1967, with parishioner Ted Pappas as the architect and John N. Pappas as Chairman of the Building Committee.  The building won a national award for its design.  The first Liturgy was held March 3, 1968, with Fr.Frank Kirlangitis officiating.   A marriage of the new and old was noted in the building with the transfer of the old iconostasion to the new church.  Mr. James Kalogerakos, the only living charter member of the church and the oldest parishioner at 100 years of age, cut the ribbon on "Thyranixion Day".   The congregation felt an unparalleled blessing as it entered through the church portals for the first time; the singularity of our individual selves merged into a communion of one congregation to glorify God.  The building was officially consecrated as a church on September 20, 1970, by Archbishop Iakovos.

Fr. John Hondras served this community with love and integrity from 1972-1978. Fr. Hondras was followed by Fr. Paul Costopoulos, who was was instrumental in converting religious classes into intense Bible Study Sessions for a more extensive and inspirational understanding of the tenets of Orthodoxy.
       
Following Father Paul Costopoulos, the Very Rev. Nicholas T. Graff came to our parish in February 1991.   During the seventeen year tenure at the St. John the Divine parish, Fr. Niko initiated plans and the parish purchased additional properties surrounding the current edifice, as well as, the acquisition and purchase of twenty acres of property for the anticipated future planning of a community village complex, promoting the importance of church traditions with a banquet hall building, a new church, a chapel, as well as school building structures and retirement residences, all, dedicated to God and reflecting the Byzantine beauty of Orthodox beliefs and worship.  Architect Steve Papadatos has been granted the master plans for the future design, development and enrichment of our St. John the Divine community parish.  Nick Furris, Director/ Senior Producer of GOTELECOM, member of this parish and Chairman of the Building Committee.



On May 23, 1993, Deacon Milton Magos, a long time parishioner of this community, was elevated to the sacred order of presbyter. He had served as a Deacon with the St. John the Divine parish since September 29, 1985. Rev. Dr. Milton joins Very Reverend James Couchell, Very Reverend Gerasimos Annas, Rev.  Aris Metrakos, Rev. Ted Pisarchuk, and Rev.George Wilson to serve in the vineyard of the Lord from the St. John the Divine parish.  On February 16, 1997.


The Current Metropolitan, Alexios
 

Our community is very proud to currently have as its spiritual father, a young and dynamic priest the Rev. Dr. Nicholas G. Louh, a parishioner, former altar boy, and former Pastoral Assistant who was ordained into the Holy Diaconate on December 15, 2007 and elevation to the Holy Priesthood on December 16, 2007 at St. John the Divine.

The mantle and future challenges have been passed on to Rev. Dr. Nicholas G. Louh, who welcomes everyone to be united in the love of Christ and aspires to successfully live out our Orthodox faith with reverence and faith, building bridges of understanding and love, with the word of Christ, and sharing Orthodoxy both inside and outside of the four walls of this parish.
And now abide faith, hope and love; these three, but the greatest of these is love

stephendare

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Re: Greeks and Minorcans. Mid century 1700's Jacksonville History.
« Reply #3 on: August 18, 2009, 03:19:17 PM »
Is the second building referred to the same building as the Karpeles?
And now abide faith, hope and love; these three, but the greatest of these is love

stephendare

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Re: Greeks and Minorcans. Mid century 1700's Jacksonville History.
« Reply #4 on: November 05, 2010, 11:06:56 AM »
Is the second building referred to the same building as the Karpeles?
And now abide faith, hope and love; these three, but the greatest of these is love