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Author Topic: Shipping Industry doomed. Manufacturing Doomed. Extrusion materials Matter  (Read 550 times)

stephendare

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The future of the economy is in extrusion material for three d printers.  Shipping and transportation and the containerization model upon which the global economy is based will have to almost completely retool for the only new crop that will matter:  Extruded materials meant for home fabrication machines.  Food, military robots, fuel and extrusion.  that will be all that transports. 

http://www.wired.com/design/2013/01/filabot-plastic-recycler/
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stephendare

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Re: Shipping Industry doomed. Manufacturing Doomed. Extrusion materials Matter
« Reply #1 on: February 11, 2013, 07:35:16 PM »
http://classwarinamerica.wordpress.com/2012/12/27/lets-print-a-car/

No, seriously. Well, maybe not a whole car.

No doubt you’ve been reading about the new 3-D printers. They build up solid shapes by placing layers on top of each other. Already, the number of materials used in 3-D printing is at two dozen or so. Most of these are in powder form, with some sort of material or process that solidifies each added layer. They vary from many kinds of plastics to things like chocolate and cookie dough (!), human skin substitute, electronics, various metals, and more. Unfortunately, there’s already talk of downloading and printing a gun.

It is certain that 3-D printers will have a profound effect on the way we produce many of the things we use in daily life, not to mention those that we don’t ordinarily see.

It is certain that 3-D printers will have a profound effect on the way we produce things.

3-D printers are now in their “adolescent” stage, as it were, version 2.0. You can get one for as little as $300 and for as much as $20,000 or more. Right now they are still pretty slow and limited, but that was true of every technological advance of recent years. Consider the price of personal computers and digital cameras. Some three decades ago, both were in the range of $20,000 for advanced models, which had a small fraction of the present capabilities of common models that cost far less.

What this will mean for the future is mind boggling. 3-D printers hold the possibility of producing at home for relatively little cost an almost unlimited number of useful items, and producing commercially many others at far lower cost than at present.

Let’s say you want a spatula for your Teflon wok. Print it, for nominal cost. Make a hammer, screwdriver. Coat hanger, desk lamp, shoe rack. Make a hat, shoes, belt. Baseball bat, hockey pads, camping gear, climbing equipment… What’s the limit? And this is only home stuff. Manufacturers already make thousands of parts like gears, levers, box-shaped assemblages, and so on.

3-D printers hold the possibility of producing an almost unlimited number of useful items at low cost.

Let’s think about what this will mean, about whether they will become a force for democracy or a force for capitalism, which will probably depend greatly on how we manage these new devices. If we manage them well, there is likely to be a decentralizing trend, with commercial fabrication more locally distributed. This could be beneficial for most of us because such businesses are less likely to be of interest to corporate moguls, and more likely to be locally and worker-owned, thus more democratic and economically beneficial to us non-rich. Generally speaking, decentralization is good.

Right now, manufacturing robots have reached their 3G stage, version 3+. These are the ultimate capitalist dream: few laborers to be paid, all profit going directly to the owners. They are a mature technology now, and can accurately assemble just about anything, and much faster and more accurately than any human. But they displace jobs by the bushel basket, and they cost truckloads of cash. 3-D printers will invade this market, I hope for the better.

Going back to our car, remember that Henry Ford’s factory brought in iron ore at one end, and spit out finished cars at the other. The investment was immense, and the plant was huge and complex. But is there any reason today that a small company with the right kind of 3-D printers, a plastics extruder, and some good suppliers could not put a dependable and economic electric car on the road?

Every part of a car’s chassis and frame can be made with extruded modern materials that are lightweight, stronger than steel, and can be made into just about any shape. These can be made in a small setting; a huge factory is not needed. Hundreds of parts, if not thousands, could be printed on site. Things like battery casings and even their metal plates. Housing for the electric motors, even the rotors. Wheels. Hundreds of things, and all of them with very little immediate human input. The humans would be busy with other aspects of our car’s manufacture and assembly.

3-D printers will be able to build a substantial part of an inexpensive car made in limited numbers and available only locally.

It’s quite possible that the end result would be an inexpensive car made in limited numbers and available only locally, doing away with trans-oceanic and trans-continental shipping, extensive supply and service facilities, and all the rest we associate with the automotive behemoths. Our electric car would be serviced where it was made, on those few occasions when service was needed.

These places would have limited interest for capitalist investors simply because of their smaller size and the inherent limits on their production. But they might be of enormous interest to people who want to be worker-owners, and they might link with other small worker-owned companies who make certain specialized parts for their cars, say, computerized controls or various types of electronics.

This is coming. It’s almost here. Heck, the other day I watched a video of a 3-D printer making fancy Christmas cookies just for fun. All that is needed is further technological development and economies of scale, which could happen next week. It will be most interesting to see how it plays out, but you can be sure it will change everything.
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stephendare

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Re: Shipping Industry doomed. Manufacturing Doomed. Extrusion materials Matter
« Reply #2 on: February 11, 2013, 07:43:04 PM »
http://www.makepartsfast.com/2012/05/3734/a-closer-look-at-extrusion-based-3d-printers/

With the arrival of low-priced consumer targeted 3D printers, some users of this technology ask why it needs to cost so much and when will the higher-priced versions go on sale? A look at the inner workings of these printers answers these questions.

By Leslie Langnau, Managing Editor

Why invest in a $15,000, $35,000 or higher cost fused deposition modeling/fused filament fabrication (FDM®/FFF) 3D printing technology when there are other extrusion printers out there that are under $2000 (such as RepRap)? Well, it depends on what you want to do with your system, and, as the caveat goes—“you get what you pay for.”

The technology behind Fused Deposition Modeling was invented by Scott Crump, CEO of Stratasys. The term FDM is trademarked by Stratasys. At least one of the patents issued to Mr. Crump has expired, enabling companies like RepRap to use that knowlege to develop their versions of extrusion systems. RepRap coined the term fused filament fabrication to avoid trademark conflicts.

These 3D printer systems use extrusion to deliver material that is used to build a three-dimensional part. Extrusion is one of the six primary processes in 3Dprinting/additive manufacturing. The others are jetting; lamination; melting as in electron beam melting or direct metal deposition; photo curing; and sintering. As of today, there are more FDM® machines than any other type in the world, including the consumer targeted units.

One of the strengths of this technology is that it can use a range of materials to develop good and strong mechanical properties in parts. Another strength is that these systems can handle any geometric complexity you can create. One critique often leveled at 3D printing technology is that parts tend to take longer to build, compared to a CNC subtractive operation. Such an argument does not necessarily consider part complexity, material, and other factors. Build speed in extrusion systems is a function of the material feed rate, the plotting speed, the rate at which the material can be melted, and the weight of material. For total throughput time, you may also want to consider the programming time for a CNC, support removal for a 3D printed part, as well as curing and applying an infiltrant if necessary.

The extrusion process consists of simultaneously advancing and melting a ribbon of material through a computer controlled nozzle deposition unit. (By contrast, laser sintering systems rely on the crystalline nature of powdered material to change to a curable liquid state when hit with high heat.) The material flows through the nozzle under pressure to ensure a constant rate of flow. In Stratasys systems, for example, drive wheels push a thermoplastic filament into the heating chamber of the extrusion unit, which heats it to a flowing consistency.

As long as the flow rate of the material is coupled with the motion of the extrusion head, your parts will have consistent and accurate dimensions. Ensuring that the material and the nozzle move together is challenging, as both are constantly changing; the extrusion head accelerates and decelerates as it travels across the build platen. In addition, the X-Y movement of the nozzle must coordinate with the Z movement of the build plate for consistent material deposition. As the head speed changes, the drive wheels need to adjust the material flow rate to deliver a precise ribbon width that changes as needed to produce the part. The lower cost extrusion systems often use stepmotors that drive belts to move the plotter system, but the tradeoff is accuracy and speed. The more expensive etrusion systems use servo drives and lead screws, which deliver the needed accuracy for more precisely built parts. The Stratasys Fortus 900 mc, for example, uses ball screw drives.

Ensuring that the material and the nozzle move together is challenging, as both are constantly changing. Lower cost extrusion systems often use stepmotors that drive belts to move the plotter system, but the tradeoff is accuracy and speed. The more expensive extrusion systems use servo drives and lead screws, which deliver the needed accuracy for more precisely built parts as shown in the Stratasys example here.

In Stratasys machines, for example, the material flowing from the nozzle typically measures 0.008 to 0.038 in. wide (0.20 to 0.97 mm) and as fine as 0.005 in. high (0.13 mm). On the highest performance Stratasys machines, though, part accuracy or tolerance reaches as high as 0.003 in. (0.08 mm). By comparison, injection molding’s accuracy is 0.005 in. These measurements are not available on the lower cost consumer style extrusion systems, or even on many of the desktop personal use systems.

The diameter of the nozzle also affects the material’s flow rate, as well as minimum feature size and part porosity. These factors partly explain why extrusion-based processes are well-suited to building large parts, rather than very small parts with tiny wall thickness.

The path to accuracy

Extrusion systems build a part differently from laser-based systems. Both use a layer-by-layer approach, but in extrusion, an outline of the part is deposited first. This outline determines the accuracy of the build part’s dimensions, so the deposition speed is often slower to ensure precise deposition. Then, the nozzle fills in the outline using specific, established fill patterns of back and forth motion. These fill patterns are similar to the cut patterns used by CNCs in planar pocket milling.

The fill patterns are part of the system software used to slice the 3D CAD image into layers. Stratasys, for example, uses Catalyst EX or Insight to slice the part design into layers and generate the nozzle path for building the part. However, an understanding of build paths can influence your design. For example, fewer individual paths are preferred to minimize seaming and gap overlaps, but this may not be possible with complex designs. Consideration needs to be given to nozzle start and stop locations. Fewer individual paths are preferred to minimize seaming and gap overlaps. Alternating stop-start locations will avoid seams in an area that may be critical for fit or assembly. Another example is that you can adjust the fill style from solid to semi-porous sparse, which will deliver different properties depending on your design.

In the higher priced extrusion 3D printing units, software handles the slicing, the outline deposition, the fill-in deposition, support creation, and other printing parameters, while still giving you a choice of ranges. In the lower-cost systems, you may have to code these functions from start to finish.

Keep in mind that the nozzle may need to make frequent turns to handle corners and edges. Cornering can be a challenge in extrusion processes; how it is handled will affect build speed as well as the strength and dimensional accuracy of your parts. A concern during material deposition is that the nozzle could damage the material already laid down for the outline as it fills in the part. Also, your fill-in pattern needs to ensure that material is extruded close enough to bond layers to the outline as well as to each other well.

In general, material is extruded to either maximize precision or strength, depending on whether the material is deposited so that it just butts up against previous layers, or overlaps previous layers.

Many materials used in extrusion machines display an Anisotropic quality, where they will show different properties, such as strength, depending on the layer direction. Different layering strategies will give you different part strengths.

Be aware that as the nozzle fills in the part, there can be gaps as the nozzle changes direction, or moves into corners, or at the ends of a part. The higher end systems alternate material flow rate and speed to handle this issue.

The material should solidify quickly and bond to previously extruded material. Sometimes, this can be an added layer of complexity, as the build chamber is kept at a high temperature to ensure material flow.

Many parts built through extrusion require that you also design supports that will be built concurrently. With some extrusion systems, these supports are generated automatically through the software. Supports can be made of material similar to the build item or of a secondary material.

In some machines, the extrusion head alternates between part material and support material during deposition. Keep in mind, though, that the supports must be removed from the part without damaging the part.

Some like it hot

The material in the extrusion unit has to be in a form that can flow through the nozzle. Some systems use heater coils to keep the material in a flowable state.

The build chamber must also maintain a consistent temperature to ensure proper flow, but not be so high as to impede bonding. Depending on the extrusion system or material, the material solidifies based on heat or a chemical reaction. With chemical, the material reacts to some additive, be it a curing agent, a solvent, the air, or the process of drying.

Another factor affecting material dimension is gravity. Once extruded, gravity and surface tension may alter the final dimensions of the part.

Part cooling is not necessarily a linear process. You may see some dimension shifts and porosity develop simply because of cooling. Ensuring the proper temperature in the build chamber can reduce the likelihood of dimensional changes and porosity.

Makers of extrusion systems

Stratasys is the largest manufacturer of extrusion-based systems. The line includes the Dimension units, uPrint SE, as well as the Fortus line. The Dimension offering lets you control a few build parameters, and works with ABSplus material. The two printers in the Dimension line vary by build envelope size and layer thickness options.

The uPrint SE is a desktop version that has one layer thickness setting and one build material. These machines are primarily geared toward concept exploration. The Fortus line offers one of the largest build envelopes (3 x 2 x 3 ft), can print in different layer thicknesses, and can works with nine different materials.

Aside from Stratasys systems, other extrusion systems include the RepRap, MakerBot, BotMil, and 3DTouch units. The MakerBot and BotMil units typically come in kit form, although MakerBot also offers an assembled version.

The 3DTouch is a version of the Bits From Bytes printers, now owned by 3D Systems. It is available with one to three print heads, which will print parts in different colored thermoplastic material. The build area is about 275 x 275 x 210 mm (10.75 x 10.75 x 8.25 in.); the z-axis resolution is 125 microns.

There are good reasons why some extrusion-based 3D printing systems have a high purchase price. Their technology addresses the issues of build speed, part build accuracy and strength, production capacity, as well as maintenance to deliver as automated a build process as it technically possible at this time. Cost is only one consideration with 3D printing technology.


3D Systems
www.3dsystems.com

MakerBot
www.makerbot.com

Stratasys
www.stratasys.com
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stephendare

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Re: Shipping Industry doomed. Manufacturing Doomed. Extrusion materials Matter
« Reply #3 on: February 11, 2013, 08:01:40 PM »

http://www.popsci.com/technology/article/2012-08/researcher-aims-print-3-d-print-entire-houses-out-concrete-20-hours

3-D printers can make airplanes and their parts, food and more — why not entire buildings? A professor at the University of Southern California aims to print out whole houses, using layers of concrete and adding plumbing, electrical wiring and other guts as it moves upward.

Professor Behrokh Khoshnevis at USC created a layered fabrication method he calls Contour Crafting, which he says can be used to build a single house or “a colony of houses.” It could be used with concrete or adobe, he says. Khoshnevis has been developing the system for several years and hosted a presentation about it at a recent TEDx event.

It would use a movable gantry taller than the house you want to build. Concrete pours out and is set down layer by layer, like a typical 3-D printer would sinter plastic together. It could be ideal for emergency housing, commercial or low-income structures, but it could also be used to print out customized luxury homes, according to Khoshnevis. Or, he adds, it might be ideal for the moon or Mars. “Contour Crafting technology has the potential to build safe, reliable, and affordable lunar and Martian structures, habitats, laboratories, and other facilities before the arrival of human beings,” his website reads.

Khoshnevis is hardly the only 3-D printing expert advocating this — Enrico Dini, the Italian inventor of the D-Shape 3-D printer, wants to 3-D print moon buildings out of lunar regolith.

On Earth, the automated system could prevent delays, injuries and other labor issues related to human workers. With this system, maybe a 3-D printer could beat the Chinese attempt to construct the world’s tallest building in three months.
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stephendare

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Re: Shipping Industry doomed. Manufacturing Doomed. Extrusion materials Matter
« Reply #4 on: February 11, 2013, 08:22:40 PM »
very cool video with a chemical/sand extrusion building method.

http://www.stonespray.com
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stephendare

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Re: Shipping Industry doomed. Manufacturing Doomed. Extrusion materials Matter
« Reply #5 on: February 11, 2013, 08:28:08 PM »
<a href="http://www.youtube.com/v/C3_twsI4VG0" target="_blank" class="new_win">http://www.youtube.com/v/C3_twsI4VG0</a>

http://www.popsci.com/diy/article/2009-08/3-d-printing-now-stainless-steel

You can stop pounding on that anvil now; steel fabrication has moved onto the web. Shapeways, a company that made its name offering custom 3-D printing in plastic and resin, will now print your designs in stainless steel. All you have to do is upload your brilliant CAD design (or pick from a range of stock items). Shapeways will print it out in cold, shiny steel, and mail it to you.

As with any 3-D printing, the object is built up in layers. In this case, powdered steel is laid down, alternating with a binding material, in thin layers until the whole piece appears. Then your finished model is heated, cured and, according to Shapeways, "infused with bronze."

Steel printing from Shapeways is limited to models that pass specific size and detail guidelines. The printing leaves some lines and visible layers in the object, they say, so be prepared: your finished piece probably won't look as smooth and perfect as other bits of metal you own. Shapeways' cost chart quotes $10 per square centimeter for steel printing, which could add up to a hefty price for larger items. That said, being able to make your own metal objects without big equipment or the threat of horrible burns is pretty cool at any price.
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cityimrov

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Re: Shipping Industry doomed. Manufacturing Doomed. Extrusion materials Matter
« Reply #6 on: February 11, 2013, 09:26:57 PM »
So what your basically saying is, Jacksonville is doomed?

stephendare

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Re: Shipping Industry doomed. Manufacturing Doomed. Extrusion materials Matter
« Reply #7 on: February 11, 2013, 09:29:18 PM »
not really. The extruding materials will still have to be shipped somewhere.  But I wonder if they will come via water?

Food, Fuel, military and extruder materials.  The economy will reshape itself around that shipping reality.
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